CPS 3300 - Exam 2
Terms in this set (277)
Frank and sara are talking about the recent football game and Frank is describing his reaction to the game-winning field goal. Lisa walks up and Frank says to Sara, "oh, she doesn't watch sports"
Before the invention of the printing press, the written word was used as a method of controlling the general populace
Because we talk ourselves into negative feelings, it is also possible to talk ourselves out of feeling sad or upset.
The Dr. Fox Hypothesis is an example of language shaping our impressions of
Which of the following best describes the difference between the two sentences. The tickets have disappeared, i have misplaced the tickets.
second sentence takes more responsibility for the problem
The invention of the printing press made ____ possible for the first time in history.
Which of the following is not true about the use of words in communication?
Words are logical and valid codes based on universal common sense and conventional usage.
The only features that characterize all languages is that they are symbolic and rule-governed.
In a survey about conversational frequency, nearly 50 percent of the women said they called friends at least once a week just to talk, whereas less than half as many men did so.
is language that expresses a person's feelings and attitudes.
I'm tired of studying. I really need to get out and do something--maybe a movie. I wish I could find someone to go with me. Is an example of a direct message
The only features that characterize all languages is that they are symbolic and rule-governed.
Arguments may result when we label our inferences as
The invention of the ____ changed the world and brought nationalism, human rights, and scientific discoveries.
printed word and printing press
A message that sounds disconfirming to one person can be a term of endearment to another person.
The labels we choose for ourselves and encourage others to use say a great deal about who we think we are and how we want others to view us.
Which statement does not contain powerless language?
Let's meet for lunch tomorrow
Which of the following is not true about the use of words in communication?
Words have the power to prevent communication
The average speaker has approximately 200,000 to 300,000 words stored in memory.
____ govern how sounds are combined to form words.
The vast majority of scholarly ideas and research studies are presented
in written text
Words are arbitrary symbols that have no meaning in themselves.
An important task facing communicators is to establish a common understanding of the words they use to exchange messages.
The vast majority of scholarly ideas come from texts that we process orally.
Generally speaking, language is subjective
Words derive much of their meaning from the circumstances and contexts in which they are used.
Words have the power to
all of these
neutral or pleasant words substituted for blunt ones.
Soft language is used to describe attitudes and emotions, whereas hard language is used to convey verifiable truths about the world.
Of the following, which is the most essential set of rules governing the use of language?
The expression "my life is a disaster. I can't do anything right," is an example of _____ self talk
The language we use describes our perceptions but does not affect our perceptions.
Pragmatic rules are unwritten rules for interpreting a message.
According to the Dr. Fox Hypothesis, pronunciation is more influential than vocabulary in shaping people's perceptions of the speaker.
Powerful speech patterns vary from culture to culture
Language usage that has a high frequency of terms implying superior male traits and inferior female traits or the reverse is known as
Tom and Betty are talking about a recent movie when Maria walks up. Have you seen it yet? This is an example of _____ language.
Syntax deals with structure, semantics governs meanings.
"I guess I'd like to..." is which kind of powerless language?
Language is the foundation for our personal relationships
People use confirming language to
acknowledge another person's presence, individuality or right to a different point of view
This great thinker once said: "Words have the power to destroy or heal. When words are true and kind, they can change the world."
According to social research, sexist language is
more often used with or about women than men
The statement, "Americans are materialistic," is an example of a _____ statement.
The best type of confirming message is acknowledgement.
The rules that tell us which meaning of a message is appropriate in a given context are:
Indirect messages are more likely to be misinterpreted than direct messages.
Sexist and racist speech are both exclusive and disconfirming.
It is virtually impossible to develop and maintain an interpersonal relationship through written words
The only features that characterize all languages is that they are rule-governed and subjective
Language can be precise or vague
Disconfirming speech builds walls between speakers.
The only features that characterize all languages is that they are subjective and symbolic
Women are more likely to use conversation to enhance relationships, while men use conversation to exchange information or to accomplish a task
"Let's go out and shoot some pool tonight," is an example of a direct message.
The notion that words are arbitrary and have no meaning in themselves refers to which characteristic of language?
Which of the following is an accurate statement about comparing written and spoken language?
all of these
Rules about the uses and interpretations of a message in a given context are called?
Before the invention of the printing press, the written word was used as a method of controlling the general populace.
Competent communicators understand that ambiguity and vagueness can sometimes serve useful purposes.
Research shows that when speakers use powerful speech, they are viewed as less reasonable
______ govern how words can be arranged and how different arrangements of the same words take on different meanings.
Language can be used to
all of these
The development of alphabets and written language changed the course of history by
helping common citizens gain access to ideas and information
It is possible to understand the attitudes or feelings of others, even if you aren't able to understand the content of their communication.
The fact that it is impossible to think about and control all nonverbal behavior suggests which characteristic of nonverbal communication?
Dress has no bearing on how likely we are to obey or follow the suggestions of others
The ranges of spatial zones are remarkably constant over vastly different cultures
Communication through paralanguage is typically intentional and almost always takes place at the conscious level.
According to social scientist Albert Mehrabian what percentage of the emotional impact of a communicated message comes from nonverbal sources?
More than 90%
Which messages are not conveyed by clothing?
Analytical and logical
Claiming space in public territories to establish and communicate our presence and ownership may be done by
All of these
Which distance is typically used when a parent holds an infant?
Edward T. Hall considers intimate distance to be
0 to 18 inches
Nonverbal messages are often
More ambiguous and vague than verbal messages
Personal attractiveness is
something that can be influenced through communication
Nonverbal behavior may repeat or substitute for verbal communication
Nonverbal messages are often viewed as having more credibility than verbal messages because
Nonverbal messages are more difficult to manipulate and fake
____ are body movements that substitute gestures for words and have fairly specific verbal translations.
Nonverbal communication behaviors originate and influence us at a subconscious level
Turn-taking signals fall under which function of nonverbal communication
"Actions speak louder than words," suggests that:
Nonverbal communication is more believable than verbal
Edward T. Hall considers social distance to be
4 feet to 12 feet
Paralanguage is a scientific term given to speech that is sprinkled with slang peculiar to a specific group
In every culture, there are strict, unwritten rules for the duration of eye contact.
Nonverbal expressions are generally more connotative than denotative
The more developed or intimate a relationship is, the
Most people use and understand the nonverbal messages of one another.
Emblems satisfy which function of nonverbal communication?
_____ are movements of the body that help us control the interaction or flow of communication between others and ourselves.
The primary difference between verbal and nonverbal communication is that verbal communication is guided by rules whereas nonverbal communication is not.
____ are movements of the body, including postural changes, that are made to feel more comfortable or to perform specific physical functions.
In comparison to verbal language, nonverbal communication
Is also governed by a system of rules and norms
______ are movements of the body that convey emotional meanings such as happiness, surprise, anger or fear.
Facial expressions indicating fear, sadness, happiness, and pain appear to be universally understood from one culture to another.
Behaviors that demonstrate or reinforce a verbal statement are known as
Which type of nonverbal communication is considered the most noticeable?
Nonverbal messages convey
intended and unintended meanings
Dr. Stephen Marquardt studied beauty from ancient times to modern day and his research showed that
All groups had the same perceptions of beauty for both genders, for all races, cultures, and eras.
According to social scientist Albert Mehrabian, the primary force and emotional impact of a message is the result of direct, inclusive speech.
Of the nonverbal cues, ________ has the greatest emotional impact.
Which of the following is not included in the term kinesics?
Which kind of distance is used most often in business situations?
Our initial impressions are influenced more by nonverbal behavior than verbal behavior.
The level of satisfaction in a relationship is often conveyed through nonverbal cues, such as reduced or increased eye contact and tone of voice
_____ refers to the way a culture defines time.
Which distance is typically used when a teacher lectures in front of a large class?
is an often-manipulated form of nonverbal expression
The norms and general interpretations associated with nonverbal communication are
Nonverbal communication consists of
Behavioral messages other than written or spoken words
______ are body movements that substitute gestures for words and have fairly specific verbal translations.
Paralanguage refers to
Vocal but nonverbal characteristics of speech.
The fact that most nonverbal cues are vague implies which characteristic of nonverbal communication?
To be labeled nonverbal communication, a gesture must be intentional
When Beth finished speaking, she lowered her pitch and nodded toward Jon to show that was his turn to speak. Beth was using nonverbal cues for the function of
Research has shown that females are more accurate judges of facial expressions than males.
Facial expressions, eye contact, and posture are examples of nonverbal communication.
Nonverbal messages play a significant role in developing and maintaining relationships
Most nonverbal messages are carefully chosen and consciously sent.
Which distance is being used when an employer talks with an employee as they are seated across from each other at an office desk?
Volume, stress, pitch and cadence are examples of
Nonverbal messages are best at communicating
Although early studies seemed to indicate that touch is important for infant survival, more recent research shows that touch may overstimulate infants and be detrimental.
______ accompany verbal messages to demonstrate, clarify, or emphasize the spoken content.
Which of the following is not an accurate statement, based on research of spatial messages?
There are few, if any, differences among cultures in terms of defining personal space.
When meeting someone for the first time, the initial assessments of the person's power and suitability are primarily based on
Which of the following is an example of how clothing is used to communicate a message?
all of these
When Anna gives Darby "the finger" , she is using a nonverbal cue known as a(n)
Which of the following is an especially important conclusion from the studies on the role of touch in communication?
Early tactile experiences influence later mental and emotional adjustments
Nonverbal communication is especially well suited to conveying ideas, it is less effective at conveying attitudes.
Relationships based on first-level communication are likely to be
A fundamental fact about self-disclosure is that it must be
Which reason for self disclosure is found in wanting to get something "off your chest"?
Gossip is an example of first level communication
Being rushed, tired or disturbed by some matters are _____ reasons for postponing the sharing of a feeling.
One of the things that we know about emotions (feelings) is
There is nothing inherently good or bad about an emotion.
Some research suggests that there is no apparent difference between the way men and women experience and express their emotions.
Physical health and increased intimacy are benefits that can follow from sharing feelings appropriately.
A relationship can be defined as casual or intimate based upon its depth and breadth of disclosure.
The second level of communication involves sharing
Every statement a person makes involves some kind of self-disclosure.
In general, women self-disclose more things about themselves than men.
self-disclosure in a relationship is most appropriate when
it is part of an ongoing relationship
Beyond the advantage of improving relationships, a primary advantage of expressing emotions effectively is
a physiological benefit
respect is essentially an expression of sympathy or a sentimental attitude
One risk of self-disclosure is that it often leads to increased awareness and can expose a need to change, which might be painful.
The highest level of communication is called ______ communication.
Which reason for self-disclosure is found in dating behavior, particularly on the first few dates?
In general, men disclose more than women.
Genuineness, as a facilitative condition, might best be described as:
Being open and honest
The first level of communication is often marked by the use of cliches and casual remarks.
Facts represent a deeper level of self-disclosure than opinions
Facilitative conditions are created by
increasing the use of certain communication skills.
Which of the following is not a type of intimacy?
Which of the following is not a caution to consider in terms of self-disclosure?
It should only be done with a trained professional who can keep a secret.
Self-disclosure can be a releasing and freeing experience. Psychologists call this ______
The recognition that others don't cause your feelings helps you to
accept responsibility for your feelings
Suzanne and Robert are walking to class and Suzanne says to Robert, "This class is too hard and the material doesn't make sense to me." Robert replies, "I'm having trouble with this class too. I'm worried I might fail. Maybe we should study together." This is an example of ______ level communication.
One's ______ of any event is a more important determinant of feelings than is the event itself.
A major block that keeps many people from disclosing their feelings to others is
They were taught that emotions are bad or a sign of weakness.
The highest level of communication is called ______ communication
______ self-disclosure can enhance self-awareness and help clarify one's self-knowledge.
The ability to express emotions verbally is of minor importance to effective communication.
Which of the following are considered the most effective keys to satisfying self-disclosure?
reciprocity and timing
In general, both men and women express anger equally but men are _____ about revealing their strengths and positive emotions.
The process of ______ is the sharing of personal ideas, feelings, information, and reactions.
Which of the following is not considered a facilitative condition in a relationship?
The facilitative condition of acceptance is the same as
Acknowledging a person's personal worth and dignity, despite the circumstances.
Research shows that only dysfunctional people self-disclose deep feelings and secrets to a group of people they hardly know.
The degree of level of self-disclosure can help define a relationship.
All interpersonal relationships can be improved through better communication.
The degree of self-disclosure can help define interpersonal relationships in terms of whether they are
casual or close
Caring, understanding, acceptance, respect, friendliness, trustworthiness and genuineness are:
important facilitative conditions.
Levels of communication refer to the degree that individuals are willing to share their thoughts and feelings.
We like people with whom we reciprocally disclose, and we disclose with people whom we like.
We should be self-disclosing at all times, if we want to build healthy relationships.
The helping conditions that Carl Rogers and his colleagues wrote about and discussed are also called:
In order for a relationship to grow and flourish, ______ is essential.
Because females tend to exhibit more self-disclosing behavior, they tend to have more fulfilling close relationships than do males.
Deep self-disclosure statements are characterized by:
being more private and personal than other statements are.
The first level of communication involves
When self-disclosing, it is important to gauge your listener's reaction. Disclosing too much, too quickly can scare people off.
Being obsessed with "shoulds" can cause unnecessary unhappiness.
the third level of communication involves sharing:
Individuals who label themselves as "shy" tend to exhibit distinctly different behavioral patterns than those who label themselves as "not shy"
Many people do not self-disclose for fear of
all of these
Psychologists stress that there is nothing inherently good or bad about feelings.
Psychologists view catharsis as
a releasing and freeing experience
Self-disclosure and increased awareness can lead to depression.
Which of the following is an example of self-disclosure?
all of these
Because of its very nature, self-disclosure cannot be manipulative.
The highest level of interpersonal communication is called:
Personal self-disclosure involves sharing:
all of these
Research shows that in dating relationships, regularity of affection, relationship satisfaction, and the level of commitment are directly related to
disclosure of personal information
People who are deemed empathetic typically have _______ skills.
Honesty at any cost is considered _____ self-disclosure.
Random or isolated self-disclosure is an example of _______ self-disclosure.
People who are deemed empathetic typically have _______ skills
The percentage of messages that are self-disclosing are relatively high.
The facilitative condition of understanding in a facilitative relationship is best described as.
Acknowledging and responding to a person's experience or feelings in and about a personal situation.
Which of the following is most accurate about self-disclosure?
Some relationships are not reciprocal in disclosing information and this is appropriate.
Which of the following about appropriate self-disclosure is not true?
it focuses on past issues and problems
If some self-disclosure is good, then more disclosure is better.
If you have or experience an unpleasant or disagreeable feeling:
you can express or act it out in socially appropriate ways.
Self-disclosure of sorrows as well as moments of happiness is considered a
Powerful process that enables people to come closer together
In general, men tend to find and express relational intimacy through
shared activities rather than talking
________ focuses on a willingness to believe in and acknowledge the personal worth and dignity of a person, despite the circumstances
John and Alex are walking to class. "Well, if you would show up to class regularly, you would probably..."
While ____ gives speakers the chance to be heard, it doesn't mean that the listener is trying to understand.
Attentive listeners ________ interrupt a speaker.
Which of the following is the most likely barrier or obstacle to listening?
we hear a lot talk and experience information overload
Which of the following is not true about selective listening:
The more open that we are, the more we listen selectively.
Attentive listeners are able to:
all of these
Listening is viewed by most people as a skill that
know how to do and need little improvement upon
In the third step of listening, remembering, your primary task as a listener is to:
reconstruct the message that you heard so that it makes sense to you
Communication problems among couples are rarely centered on listening.
Attentive listeners first repeat exactly what the speaker said when it is their turn to speak.
The fact that we spend five or more hours a day listening contributes to
Critically listening is a form of empathetic listening.
______ is the process wherein sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain.
Effective listening builds better relationships.
Research shows that:
most individuals overrate their listening skills.
Noise is a barrier to successful listening.
Listening is a natural activity that people do without conscious effort.
________ listeners appear to be listening but they are not.
The listening style that involves staying attentive while telling little about any of your own ideas or feelings is known as
Listening is the first step in facilitating people to explore and gain insights into personal issues and concerns.
Hearing is physiological; attending is
In one classic study, managers were asked to rate themselves as listeners. Their ratings:
were much higher than their employees gave them.
Effective listeners have a large and wide ranging reportoire of ______ words.
Self-absorbed people tend to be poor listeners.
The best professors are those who are able to listen passively.
Mnemonic devices are helpful strategies for
Ideas are always complemented by _____, either pleasant or unpleasant.
Listening is a communication skill that can be developed and improved through instruction and practice.
Research suggests that _______ spend approximately 60% of the communication time listening.
At the same time that we receive messages, we also send them.
According to Adler (2004), gaining information and building relationships are among four important reasons for increasing one's listening skills.
In the second step of listening, understanding, your primary task as a listener is to
clarify and ask questions
Is comparing listening, speaking, reading, and writing, which of the following is true?
listening is used most but taught least
Because every person interprets data uniquely, we have to accept the fact that it's unlikely that we ever completely understand another person.
Skilled communicators are aware of the biases of others as well as their own.
Active listening requires both skill and effort.
It is difficult to talk to Ed because he often take things the wrong way. Ed is a
There are times when the best response is no response.
Listening in the process that gives meaning, whereas hearing is a __________ process
restating, in your own words, the message you think the speaker just sent.
Of the following, which is not a valid reason for increasing one's listening skills?
to reduce the need to self-disclose and dominate a conversation.
Listening involves much more than the passive act of hearing.
________ listeners tend to interpret innocent comments as personal attacks.
When trying to understand what another person is experiencing, you might best think about feelings as
pleasant and unpleasant
Dana's professors think she is a good listener because of her eye contact, nods, and note-taking. In reality, Dana is using the class time to catch up on her personal diary. Dana is guilty of
_________ listeners are interested almost exclusively in their own ideas and interests.
present a polite facade and pretend to be listening
The ability to repeat a statement you just heard doesn't guarantee that you understood it.
Among communication skills, listening is considered
the first essential skill
Critical listeners are able to hear a speaker's words and understand the ideas in order to refute them.
Which of the following is not one of the four steps of active listening?
be passive while leaning forward to show interest.
Which of the following is not a task of the fourth step of listening -- evaluating.
eliminate your values and beliefs and avoid making judgments.
________ listeners are selective and respond only to parts of a conversation that appeal to them.
Listening requires a lot of mental energy because you must block out interfering noises, movements, and even your own self-centered thoughts and images.
________ is the technique that the brain uses to filter out unwanted sounds and distractions.
In committed relationships, listening to personal information in everyday conversations is considered an important ingredient of satisfaction.
Maintaining eye contact is the first step in attentive listening.
The first step in listening is
to note not only what is said but how it is being said.
One of the most frequent of marital communication problems is failing to take
the partner's perspective
Selective listening can be an obstacle to effective communication.
Listening is considered the communication skill most valued by
all of these
In the receiving stage of active listening, one focuses exclusively on verbal behavior.
When communication skills were ranked by hundreds of human resources executives, which of the following was ranked number one?
The average person is capable of understanding speech rates of 600 words per minute.
Research indicates that the average person spends _______ time listening than speaking.
While most people recall few details of their conversations, they do retain _______, especially in important relationships.
an overall impression
The process of listening involves hearing, attending, understanding, remembering, and responding.
Listening skills tend to be recognized as of little importance by business leaders.
Personality traits of listeners do not affect their ability to understand messages.
It's possible to hear well and listen poorly at the same time.
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