55 terms

Geography Praxis 2 5004

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Spatial Orientation
Things are grouped in a given space, people, places, environment anywhere and everywhere on earth
Geography and Topography
Another way to describe where people live, defined as the study of earths features
Relative location
The surrounding geography, the banks of the Mississippi, to describe where you live
Absolute location
Refers to a specific point, such as latitude and longitude or a direct address
Formal regions
Area is defined by actual political boundaries such as a city, country or state
Functional regions
Defined by a common function, such as the area covered by telephone service
Vernacular regions
Less formally defined areas that are formed by people's perception, such as the middle east or the south
Landform
Comprises a geomorphological unit, categorized by characteristics such as elevation, slope, rock structure or soil type
Earth surface is made up of what land and what water?
30% land, 70% water
Mountains
steep slopes atlas 2,000 feet or more above sea level
Hills
elevated landforms rising about 500 or 200 feet
Plateaus
Elevated landforms that are usually level on top
Plains
Areas of flat or slightly rolling land usually lower than the landform next to them
Valleys
Land areas that are found between hills and mountains usually formed by erosion
Deserts
Large dry areas of land receiving 10 inches or less of rainfall each year
Deltas
Areas of low lands formed by soil and sediment deposited at the mouth of a river
Mesas
The flat top of hills or mountains usually with steep sides
Basins
Low areas drained by rivers were low spots on mountains
Foothills
a low series of hills found between a plain and a mountain range
Marshes and swamps
wet low lands
Oceans
Largest body of water on the planet, the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian, the Arctic, and the Southern Ocean
Seas
Bodies of water smaller than ocean and surrounded by land
Lakes
Bodies of water surrounded by land, the Great Lakes
Rivers
Considered a nations life blood, usually beginning as a very small streams formed by melting snow and rain fall
Canals
Man made a water passages connected to 2 larger bodies of water
What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather is the condition of air from day today, climate is the condition of air over a long period of time
Praire climate
located in the interiors of the large continents life Asia and North America, dry flatlands far from an ocean breeze
Tundra and Taiga
major climates found at high latitudes, extremely cold winters, but becomes mushy during the short summer
Tundra-marshy plain
Taiga is the northern region located south of the tundra, the world's largest forest land is found here, the summer temperatures are extremely warm
Subtropical climate
Humid climate found in the north and south of the tropics, winds blow currents of warm moist air all year
Marine climate
These lands are either near water or surrounded by water, the ocean winds are wet and warm, vertical climate exists because the temperatures, crops, vegetation are at different levels of elevation
Culture
Describe the way of life of a group of people
Physical geography
The locations of such features as climate, water, and land as they affect each other
Cultural geography
Studies the location, characteristic, and influence of the physical environment on different cultures
Physical locations
Parallels, meridians
Eastern hemisphere
Is located between the north and south poles between the primer radian east to the international dateline
Western Hemisphere
Between the North and South poles, between the prime meridian west to the international date line
Northern Hemisphere
Located between the North Pole and the equator
Southern Hemisphere
Located between the South Pole and the equator
The 7 continents
Australia
•Africa
•Asia
•Europe
•North America
•South America
•Antarctica
Prime Meridian
Line of longitude that marks 0 degrees.
•Passes through Greenwich, England
International Date Line
Imaginary line that runs from north to south pole and demarks the change of one calendar day to the next
•Roughly follows 180 degree longitude
https
Physical Map
•Depict the physical features of an area (mountains, rivers, lakes, deserts, etc.)
Topographical maps
•Accurate depiction of surface conditions of an area (elevation)
Topological Maps
•Simplified maps to emphasize a few pieces of key information
•May not be drawn to absolute scale
Thematic maps
•Display social, political or non-geographical data in conjunction with geographical information
Weather Maps
•Depict the climate and/or weather for a particular region
Anthropology
the scientific study of human culture and humanity, the relationship between humans and their cultures
Cultural anthropology = study of cultural organization of specific groups
•Physical anthropology = study of the development of humanity's physical form
•Archaeology = study of human history through material remains
Natural resources
Naturally occurring substance is considered valuable to their natural form
Renewable resources
Living resources which can restock themselves if they are not over harvested (wood, solar power, etc.)
Nonrenewable resources
Natural resources that cannot be regenerated in the same proportion in which they are used (minerals, oil, etc.)
Environmental policy
Concerned with the sustainability of the earth and the preservation of a region, habitat or ecosystem
Cultural Geography Terms
•Crude birth rate = annual number of childbirths for every 1,000 people
•Crude death rate = annual mortality rate for every 1,000 people
•Rate of natural increase = the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate
•Infant mortality rate = Number of deaths of children under the year of 1 for every 1,000 births per year
•Often used as a marker of general health of population
•Life expectancy = average age to which individuals can be expected to live
•Women often have longer life expectancies
•Morbidity rate = incidence of people contracting a certain disease within a population
•Demographic transition = distinct and drastic changes in death and birth rates
Sociology
Study of social phenomenon
•Socialization
•Process by which individuals learn appropriate and inappropriate behavior for a particular society
•Role of positive and negative sanctions
•Social Class
•Layers of social stratification based on an individual's ascribed or achieved status
Sociology Terms
Norm = typical behavior of a social group
•Networks = ties between social actors (2 is smallest)
•Primary groups = social group whose members share close, personal, and long-term relationships.
•Secondary groups = social group whose members chose to come together to perform functions; often temporary.
•Role conflict = when the different social statuses a person occupies are incompatible
•Ethnocentrism = belief that one's culture is superior to others
•Prejudice = preconceived negative beliefs about another group
•Discrimination = negative behavior towards another group
•Cultural relativism = belief that all cultures are equally valuable
Anthropology Figures
Major method is "participant observation"
•Julian Steward
•Rejected earlier views of a universal path of evolution
•Developed concept of cultural ecology
•Culture is shaped by immediate environment
•Claude Levi-Strauss
•Advocate of Structuralism -humans build meaning out of conceptual differences and oppositions (day/night, life/death, etc.)
•Explains cultural similarities across humanity
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