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31 terms

ESC1000 Chapter 15 - The Dynamic Ocean

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upwelling
Vertical movement of water, brings deep ocean water to the surface, caused by the coriolis effect or surface winds.
thermohaline circulation
What causes deep ocean currents?
breakwater
Human made wall built in the water parallel to shore to block incoming waves.
wavelength
Horizontal distance between two wave crests.
wave base
Depth below the wave crest at which water movement associated with the wave becomes negligible; about half the wave length.
shortens
What happens to wave length when the wave base drags on the sea floor?
spring tide
Highest tide range that occurs when the sun's and moon's gravities are pulling in the same direction or in opposite directions: at new moon and full moon phases.
beach nourishment
Collecting sediment from one place and moving it to another.
surface current
Mass of water driven by wind that blows across the oceans.
wave height
Vertical distance between the trough and crest of a wave.
wave-cut cliff
Steep cliff along shore lines created when waves cut the bottom of the cliff and material falls down from above.
sea stack
Remnant of a sea arch created when the arch falls and leaves an isolated rock body in the water.
ocean current
Mass of water that moves from one place to another. They can be at the surface or in deep water and can move laterally or vertically.
tombolo
Sand body that connects an island or sea stack to the shore.
trough
The lowest part of a wave.
semi diurnal tide
Having two high tides and two low tides each day.
gyre
Large circular surface current found in each ocean that forms due to the coriolis effect.
beach drift
Type of erosion where sediment moves in a zig zag movement along a beach caused by waves hitting the beach at an oblique angle.
baymouth bar
Spit that eventually closes off a bay or harbor.
thermohaline circulation
Movement of ocean water caused by density difference brought about by variations in temperature and salinity. As ocean water freezes at the poles it concentrates salt, and the colder, denser water sinks.
Gulf Stream
Current forming part of the north Atlantic gyre, that runs from the Gulf of Mexico up the east coast of North America carrying warm water from the equator to higher latitudes.
longshore current
A nearshore current that flows parallel to the beach and moves sediment down the beach.
sea wall
Human made wall built on land parallel to the shore that is used to stop beach erosion.
spit
Elongated sand body that forms in front of a bay or harbor due to beach drift or longshore currents.
sea arch
Arch formed by erosion on both sides of a headland.
jetty
Human made parallel walls on either side of a harbor or bay to stop sediment in beach drift or longshore currents, to keep the entrance open.
upwelling
What is caused by currents moving away from the western edge of continents or where winds move away from each other?
crest
The upper most part of a wave.
increases
What happens to the wave height when the wave base drags on the sea floor?
groin
Human made wall built perpendicular to the shore, from land out into the water to trap sediment moving in beach drift or longshore currents.
neap tide
Lowest tide range, when the moon's and sun's gravities are pulling in directions that are perpendicular to each other, cancelling each other out: at the first quarter and the third quarter phases.