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Chapter 5: Sensation

Chapter Five... Feel free to add comments if i messed up
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Bottom-Up Processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
Top-Down Processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
Absolute Threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
Signal Detection Theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint simulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise")
below one's absolute thresholdfor conscious awareness
Difference Threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time
Weber's Law
to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
Sensory Adaptation
diminished sensitivity as consequence of constant stimulation
conversion of one form of energy to another
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we percieve as brightness or loudness, as determined by the waves amplitude
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
the sharpness of vision
a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
a condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont respond
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
Optic Nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Blind Spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
Feature Detector
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
Parallel Processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
Young-Helmoltz Trichromatic (Three Color) Theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
Opponent-Process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
Color Constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
the sense of hearing
the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time (for example, per second)
a tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency
Middle Ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
Inner Ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
Place Theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Frequency Theory
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
Conduction Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
Gate-Control Theory
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
Sensory Interaction
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
Vestibular Sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
Size Constancy
Looking at a quarter in your hand casts a different image on your retina compared to looking at a quarter across the room, yet we know that the quarter is the same and retains the same dimensions. This phenomenon is known as ___________
Sensory Adaptation
You can't feel the waistband of your underwear (though you know it is there). This is mostly the result of _________
external; ear
The pinna is the _____ part of the ______which is quite useful for collecting sounds from the environment.
The _____ is held in place by ligaments attached to the ciliary muscle.
6 million; 125 million
Within the eye, there are about _____ cones and ______ rods.
sensory adaptation
You arrive at your friend's apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it doesn't bother you anymore, and you like it. This change over time describes the process of _____________
A change in the wavelength of light would result in a change in __
sense organs
At the center of every sense organ there are ______ that transduce incoming stimuli.
The ______ threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected.
Human taste buds respond to ______ different classes of chemicals.
Where are the basilar membrane and the organ of Corti located?
It speeds the message
How does myelin influence the transmission of pain signals?
When looking at these letters: XXX XXX XXX XXX we tend to see 4 groups of 3 X's rather than 12 individual X's due to the principle of
improved moods
Women who are exposed to the male sex hormone, adrostadienone, show __________
complementary colors
For someone with color blindness, the colors that look the same are always ____________
The specialty area in psychology that studies topics such as sensory limits and sensory adaptation is called _____________
sense organs
We are aware of our internal and external world because we possess
We hear a tuning fork when it is struck because it causes compression and _________ of air molecules.
The animal could not distinguish colors
You dissect an animal and find no cones in its eyes. What can you conclude about its vision?
A person wishes to study how vision is affected by various stimulus conditions. Which specialty field within psychology would be best suited to his or her interest?
absolute threshold
An architect is designing apartments and wants them to be soundproof. She asks a psychologist what the smallest amount of sound is that can be heard. Her question is most related to
Hertz is a method of measuring the frequency of sound waves as the number of cycles per _______
trichromatic theory; opponent-process theory
One way to think about how we process color images is that the ______ describes the events at the first level of neurons in the visual system, while the ______ best describes the activities of neurons in the rest of the visual system.
number of nerve cells
On your skin, the level of sensitivity is controlled by the __________
detected; detected half the time
The absolute threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be ______ and the difference threshold is the smallest magnitude of s stimulus that can be ______.
When the molecules in the air become less dense (as in the process of hearing), ______ has occurred.
frequency is to intensity.
Hertz is to decibel as _____
Your friend asks you to help move some boxes. You look at the boxes and without even trying to move them you say, "These boxes are too heavy." Seeing the boxes as heavy is an example of _________
kinesthetic receptors
Information about the location and movement of skin, muscles, joints, and tendons is provided by _______
Unused cortical areas become sensitive to other body areas.
What does evidence suggest about the neural networks that mediate the sensations of phantom limb pain?
compression; rarefaction
In the process of hearing, successive waves of increased density (called ______) and waves of decreased density (called ______) cause us to hear a repeating sound.
Technically speaking, light is a form of _______
The major purpose of the iris is to ________ the amount of light entering the eye.
perceptual constancy
The tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations is called
Between death and shame, death has the greater beauty.
Which of the following phrases would be an accurate translation of a proverb from the Bariba culture related to pain?
vibrate the eardrum
When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first
releasing endorphins
According to the gate control theory of pain, how do gate neurons inhibit pain neurons? ans: by _______
kinesthetic sense
With your eyes closed, touch the tip of your nose with your right index finger. You are able to do this mainly because of information from your
The process of converting light, sound, and other forms of energy from the world we live in into a form of neural impulses our brain can understand is called
We hear a tuning fork when it is struck because it causes compression and __________ of air
One of the reasons that sensory adaptation occurs is because receptor cells become _____________
When you can tell the difference between candy apple red and fire engine red, it is partly because the light stimuli differ in their ________