Terms in this set (69)
Theatre is live, ephemeral, collaborative, & is a synthesis of many arts
Theatre is LIVE
Occurs in the present moment & requires the presence of a live actor & an audience.
Theatre is EPHEMERAL
No performance can ever be totally duplicated or captured.
Theatre is COLLABORATIVE
It requires the efforts of many people working together.
rules of conduct & understood communication codes.
the manner in which a performance depicts the world. To be successful the audience must find the performance authentic & meaningful.
evolved with the worldwide political & social changes of the late twentieth century, it encompasses a variety of ideas & trends in different disciplines & has had an enormous impact on the theatre.
calls for a respect for neighboring cultures living under the same political system. Multiculturalism grew out of the social and political awakening of the 1960s & 1970s when the civil rights movement, the women's movement, & the protests against the war in Vietnam were the source of political & social upheavals that raised the consciousness of marginalized groups.
: the blending of traditions from various cultures.
explores the identity within the geographic boundaries of formerly colonized states in Latin America, Asia, & Africa.
views theatre as only one of a continuum of events that possess "performative" elements
the audience is a community
In some places around the world, the audience still comes from a tightly knit community liked by shared values & history outside the thearte.
the invisible bond
The live theatre audience always participates in some way in a performance. The level of audience participation can be anywhere on a continuum from community creation & participation to total separation of audience & performer.
the term theatre people use for the collective audience.
short comments that reveal a character's inner thoughts often to comic effect.
: lengthy speeches through which a character revealed state of mind & dazzling poetic monologues or speeches
a speech that the audience might erupt in appreciative applause after.
the audience is asked to accept the stage world as a believable alternate reality where things happen much as they would in life, and people behave in seemingly natural ways.
when the actors conduct their lives of their characters as though the audience weren't watching, in spaces designed to look like their counterparts in the world; in turn, the audience, representing a different reality, agrees not to intrude in the imaginary world on stage to preserve its perfect illusion.
the purging of our aggressive desires through art & enhancement; the term was first used by Aristotle in the fourth century
the ability to observe a work of art with a degree of detachment and objectivity.
a form of political theatre first used by Marxists during the 1920s in Russia that conveys information in a simple & entertaining way to persuade an audience to its point of view.
the emotional distancing of the audience form the dramatic action.
The artistic values of a play lie in its capacity to be imagined and reimagined on stage, for the true mettle of a play is tested in performance. Everything you learn about theatre will contribute to the power of your dramatic imagination.
The scaffolding on which a playwright plots a tale to frame or shape the action.
the ordering or structuring of the events that actually take place on stage.
tension between two forces working against each other, creating struggles and obstacles for the characters to overcome.
a tight-knit plot form in which the action builds causally to a moment of high emotional intensity followed by a final resolution.
point of attack
the point in the story at which the action begins.
the point of highest emotional intensity in a drama.
a translation of Aristotle's "unknotting," the act of bringing all the parts of the play to a final conclusion.
DUES EX MACHINA
any dramatic device, outside of the main action, used to bring the play to a final resolution. Developed in ancient Greek drama, the "god from medicine" arrived at the end of the play to finalize the fates of the mortal characters on stage.
a form developed during the nineteenth century that uses a tightly woven plot filled with complications that keep the audience deeply involved in the dramatic structure.
hints about events to come in the dramatic action that can be used to create or break expectations.
an event that sets the dramatic action into motion.
a complicating incident usually placed at the end of an act so audience is sent off an intermission impatient to find out how this last twist of fate will be resolved.
the place in the dramatic action where the conflict comes to a head.
a secondary dramatic action that echoes the main plots of a play through common subjects & themes that reinforce or comment on the centeral meaning of the drama.
a series of scenes that do not follow a continuous story or even include the same characters
Every play expresses its ideas through actions & words of characters, so it is impossible to completely separate plot from language and character. This is the human element that gives the play significance & emotional interest.
the lead role in drama; from the Greek word agonistes, which means both "actor" & "combatant"
a character who directly thwarts the desires of the protagonists.
: characters that embody the essence of particular human traits that enables them to speak across cultures & centuries.
: characters portraits so rich in detail & interest that spectators feel they can comprehend motivations & desires, & even fabricate a life for them that preexists their appearance in the play.
representatives of a type that are defined by externals such as class, occupation, & marital status, rather than by their individual characteristics.
the meaning of dialogue to the character, which may be different from what is actually said. Literally, the thoughts that lie under the text,
the repetition of vowel sounds for emotional effect.
Comedy is created through the serendipitous blending of many elements in front of a receptive audience. The magic formula for making something funny has challenged theatre artists & theorists
SURPRISE, CONTRAST, & INCONGRUITY
: although the unexpected is often a central dramatic element in all kinds of plays, when the element of surprise opposes all normative expectations, contrasts with what we anticipate, or seems incongruous to a situation or character, It can turn a serious situation comic.
the comic lens exaggerates characters, actions, language, voices, emotions, & situations like a fun house mirror &, ironically, often pull them into sharper focus. Before the comic magnifying glass, we get a clear picture of human excess that can throw normal social interactions into discord & disarray. Parody is the exaggerated imitation of individuals or artistic styles to make them appear ludicrous.
when exaggeration enters the psychological realm, we have obsession, which sends characters out of control in pursuit of a single desire that sets off the comic situation. The miser obsessing over money, the husband or wife obsessing over a spouse's possible infidelities, the moralist consumed with thoughts of sin are characters we see woven into endless comic plots.
slapstick humor is named for the fool's slapstick; tow long pieces of wood fastened together that created a loud slapping noise when used. The precise origins of this instrument of comic torture are unclear; today we include knockabout humor- chases, pratfalls, collisions, comic beatings, or semi- acrobatic feats & practical jokes- under this label.
sometimes comedy is used as a form of attack on the follies or institutionalized vices of a particular society. Marked by irony & wit, satire can explore pressing social issues & provoke debate. Satire is always topical, & it subjects are immediately recognizable to its audience. It uses ridicule as a corrective & usually has a moral or critical position.
unlike satire, situation comedies do not rely on topical humor & often revolve around eternal social problems such as business & financial disputes or family conflicts- husband versus wife or mother-in-law, father & son with conflicting goals, rivals competing for an ingénue's hand. As such they are plays for all eras.
despite its high entertainment value, farce is often denigrated as a low form of comedy because of its reliance on broad slapstick humor, extreme situations, & superficial characterization. Intricate, carefully planned plots are woven out of compounded misunderstandings & coincidences, & characters encounter obstacles that become so enormous & accumulate at such a rate that they are sent into ridiculous social & physical contortions to overcome them.
comedy of mannerism
sometimes comedy questions social norms by portraying behavior that reflects those norms in the extreme. Comedy of manners makes fun of ridiculous social mores or practices & the people who engage in them. It holds a magnifying glass to the comportment of the privileged & derives its humor from pointed portraits of the contemporary trendy society & the artifices it accepts as a norm. Comedy of manners relies on its audience's familiarity with expected social custom among the elite, or would-be elite.
sought to paint a realistic stage picture of life as it is lived, rejecting tragedy & comedy as inadequate expressions of the experience of daily life, in which purity of genre is never found
nspired by Freudian psychology, mined the unconscious for images that expressed the haunting truth of our hidden problems & desires.
multicamera, filmed like a movie
longer time frame, multiple locations, 24 hours, sub plot, parallel plot, shakespeare
added 3rd actor, popular city, oedipus rex, antigone
elaborate scenery, strange topics, medea
Hamarita, Hubris, Chorus, advice,
The poetics by Aristotle
time place action
origins of theatre
ritual, ceremony, story telling
first actor greek, masks
no women perform,
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