History 1, 2, and 3

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Terms in this set (...)

Where did the earliest humans originate from?
Africa then spread across the globe
Prehistory
The time before the invention of writing -about 5,000 years ago.
Archeologist
Study bones and artifacts -human-made objects such as tools and jewelry.
Anthropologists
Study culture -a group's way of life.
Culture is learned via:
observation and imitation
being taught directly
Culture is transmitted via:
family
friends
religion
government
school
workplace
media
Paleontologists
study fossils -plant or animal remains preserved in rock.
Leakey team discovered what?
prehistoric footprints in Tanzania belonging to hominids -creatures that walked upright and had developed opposable thumbs.
Stone Age (Paleolithic) (Old Stone Age)
Dates: More than 2 million years ago until 12,000 years ago
Accomplishments/characteristics:
Stone tools
Survival of the fittest
Nomads - Wanderers - hunter/gatherers
Developed minimal communication skills
Worked together
Fire
Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)
Dates: 12,000-10,000 years ago; parts of Europe 5,000 years ago
Accomplishments/characteristics:
Domestication of the dog only
Invents bow and arrows (made from bones and antlers)
Fish hooks, spears
Dugout Canoes
Stone tools, chip stone to produce edge or point
Neolithic (New Stone Age)
Dates: 10,000 - 5,000 years ago
Accomplishments/characteristics:
Two very important developments
Agriculture
Domestication (taming) of animals
Sheep, pigs, cattle, etc.
Fertilizer, plow
Private property
Social classes
Stone tools, improved by polishing and grinding
Villages develop
Neolithic Revolution - shift from food gathering to food producing
Homo erectus
appeared 1.6 million years ago
developed (more) sophisticated tools to dig, cut, hunt [key: intelligence develops technology -ways of applying knowledge, tools, inventions to meet needs.]
first hominid to use fire
might have developed language
first to migrate from Africa -to Asia, Europe
Homo sapiens
"wise men"
larger brain than homo erectus
Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons
Neanderthals
powerful muscles, thick bones
lived 200,000 to 30,000 years ago
in Europe, Southwest Asia
developed religious beliefs, performed rituals
lived in caves, shelters of wood and skins, to survive Ice Age winters
Cro-Magnons
appeared 40,000 years ago
physically identical to modern humans
planned hunts in groups (better hunters)
advanced skill in spoken language (aided cooperation)
migrated from North Africa to Europe, Asia
population rose quickly (replaced Neand.)
The development of agriculture caused an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life.
...
Nomadic Cro-Magnon hunter-gatherers invented 100+ specialized tools to increase their food supply:
spears
digging sticks
knives
fish hooks
harpoons
(bone needles -to sew)
Early human art
Stationary: cave paintings, large rock engravings/paintings
Portable: animal sculptures, polished beads (mammoth), jewelry (sea shells, lion teeth)
The Neolithic Revolution
Shift from food-gathering to food-production
farming and the domestication of animals
10,000 years ago
Neolithic Revolution Cuase
Rising temperatures, resulting in longer growing seasons (drier land)
Neolithic Revolution Farming Methods
Slash-and-burn -cut and burn trees, grass, and ashes fertilize; move to new area, others repeat process (from food gatherers' knowledge of plants)
Domestication
taming wild animals to ensure a constant source of food (from hunters' knowledge of wild animals)
farmers: horses, dogs, goats, pigs
herders: sheep, goats, camels
birthplace: northeastern Iraq, near Zagros mountains, 9000 years ago
Benefits of farming
Constant food supply led to population growth
supported a number of highly skilled workers
supported a varied cultural life
Drawbacks of farming
natural disasters (floods, fire, drought) could destroy village
Disease (malaria) spreads easier when people live closely together
Might be attacked and looted by roving bands
Agriculture caused great societal change:
...
farming success
larger harvests due to better technology (hoes, sickles)- led to larger communities
Cuneiform
Sumerians wrote on clay tablets using wedge-shaped symbols. They wrote with a sharpened wedge-shaped reed called stylus.
Economic changes
ancient people built irrigation systems to increase food production
food surpluses freed some people to develop new/different skills
craftsmen made cloth, pottery, metal objects
Invention of the wheel and sail enabled traders to travel longer distances
...
social changes
social classes -based on wealth and power
developed religion -focused on gods controlling nature- became more organized
civilization
(from the Latin word for "citizen") first arose in Sumer, located in Mesopotamia, the "Land Between the Two Rivers" -the Tigris and Euphrates- in modern Iraq
a civilization is a complex culture with five (5) characteristics
1.advanced cities: cities with larger populations rose and became centres of trade for a larger area -farmers, merchants, and traders brought goods to (the) market
2. specialized workers: as cities grew,
demand for specialized workers -traders, government officials, priests, artisans (skilled workers who make jewelry, metal tools/weapons, clothing, pottery)- grew;
supply of specialized workers made possible by food surplus
3.complex institutions: long-lasting patterns of organization in a community such as government, religion, and (an) economy were established;
governments established laws, maintained order
temples (with priests) were centres of religion as well as trade (where items were distributed)
4. record-keeping: needed as society became more complex for:
government: laws, taxes, grain stores (officials)
religion: calendar, rituals (priests)
economy: debts, payments (merchants)
scribes -professional record keepers- invent cuneiform, a system of writing, in 3000 B.C.
people also write about city events -written history
5. improved technology: new tools and techniques -ox-drawn plows, irrigation systems- made work easier/more efficient;
the Bronze Age started in Sumer around 3000 B.C.: people replaced stone and copper with bronze (copper + tin) to make tools and weapons
Civilization Emerges in Ur
It was home to 30,000 people and considered highly advanced by archaeologist Leonard Wooley who unearthed its remains from 1922-1934
What was uncovered and later reconstructed by anthropologists:
1)Ur existed around 3000 BCE
2)Well defined social classes
3)Rulers, priests, priestesses held great power
4)Artists and artisans created jewelry, musical instrument
5)Merchants became wealthy from trade (barter)