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95 terms

Chapter 7 Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton

Mississippi State Anatomy Test 2; Dr. James Stewart- Fall 2012
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206
How many bones are in the human body?
Bones, Cartilages, Joints or Articulations, Ligaments
The skeleton consists of... (4 different things)
ligaments
connect 2 bones
joints or articulations
junctions between skeletal elements
Axial and Appendicular skeleton
The skeleton is divided in to these two systems...
axial skeleton
forms long axis the body
skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
the axial skeleton consists of these three groups of bones...
Appendicular Skeleton
This system is the appendages of the body
upper limbs (arms), pectoral girdle (shoulder), lower limbs (legs), and pelvic girdle
The appendicular skeleton consists of...
cranial and facial bones
The skull consists of...
cranium
encloses the cranial cavity, which supports and protects the brain
cranial bones
These serve as attachment sites for some head and neck muscles
Anterior
Facial bones are the __________ aspect of the skull
facial bones
forms framework of the face, forms cavities for sense organs of sight, taste and smell, provides openings for passage of air and food, hold the teeth, and anchor the muscles of the face
sutures
interlocking, immovable joints
flat; sutures
Most skull bones are _______ and united by _______.
cranial "cavity"
This houses the brain
middle and inner ear, nasal cavity, orbits and sinuses
Smaller cavities in the cranium house which 5 structures?
foramina, canals, and fissures
3 different kinds of openings in the cranium
spinal cord, blood vessels, twelve cranial nerves: I-XII
Openings in the cranium are for these structures...
frontal bone
cranial bone the forms the forehead and roof of orbits
parietal bones (paired)
cranial bones that form the superior and lateral skull
occipital bone
cranial bone that forms the back of the head and foramen magnum
temporal bones (paired)
cranial bones that form the temples
sphenoid bone
cranial bone that spans base of cranial floor and batwings
ethmoid bone
cranial bone that is between nasal cavity and orbits
6 bones of the cranium
sphenoid, occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal, ethmoid bone(s)
irregular, sawtooth
appearance of sutures on the skull
coronal, sagittal, squamous, and lambdoid
Four largest sutures of the skull
coronal suture
Suture where parietal bone meets frontal bone.
Sagittal Suture
Suture where left and right parietal bones meet.
Squamous Suture
Suture where parietal and temporal bones meet.
Lambdoid
Suture where parietal and occipital bones meet.
Sutures
These are where bones articulate with parietal bones.
Vault
also called "calvaria" or skull cap; this forms superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the skull and forehead
Base or floor
inferior part of cranium
cranial base
Prominent bony ridges divides the...
Anterior, Middle, and Posterior
The three "fossae" (steps) of the cranium.
four
how many different regions does the temporal bone have?
Sphenoid Bone
spans the width of the cranial floor
Central Body, Greater Wings, Lesser Wings, Pterygoid
Four parts of the Sphenoid bone.
optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum and foramen ovale, foramen spinosum
The five openings in the sphenoid bone.
Superior orbital fissure
Opening in the sphenoid bone that allows cranial nerves for eye movement to pass through.
foramen rotudum and foramen ovale
Opening in the sphenoid bone that allows cranial nerves for maxillary and mandibular nerves to pass through.
Foramen Spinosum
Opening in sphenoid bone that allows the menigeal artery for the parietal and temporal bones to pass through
Ethmoid bone
The thin walled and delicate bone that is deeply located. It forms the medial bony area between nasal cavity and orbits.
cristi gali
This structure separates the 2 cribiform plates
cribiform plates
Part of the ethmoid bone that is sieve-like. It secures the brain to the cranial cavity.
Ethmoid Sinuses and Nasal Conchae
These are structures of the ethmoid bone and form the nasal cavities.
orbital plate
This is the medial wall of orbits that is a part of the ethmoid bone
facial bones
These 8 bones are collectively called __________: mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal, lacrimal, palatines, vomer, and inferior nasal conchae
mandible
The lower jaw bone; also the largest and strongest bone in the face.
maxillae (paired)
The upper jaw bone and central part of facial skeleton.
zygomatics (paired)
The cheek bones.
nasal (paired)
The bone that forms the bridge of the nose.
Lacrimal (paired)
This bone has a fossa that contains the lacrimal sac.
Palatines (paired)
These bones form the hard palate.
Vomer
The bone forms the inferior part of the nasal septum.
Horizontal Body of Mandible
The jawline of the mandible that anchors lower teeth.
Alveoli Margin
Tooth sockets on the mandible are also called....
mental protuberance
Part of the mandible that is the chin.
coronoid process
where the temporalis muscle attaches to the mandible
mandibular condyle
This part of the mandible is attached to the temporal bone.
Coronoid process, mandibular condyle, and mandibular notch
Name the attachment site of the mandible (3).
mandible
The maxilla articulates with all other bones in the face, except the ___________.
palatine process
This process articulates with the anterior region of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth)
frontal processes
These processes articulate with the bridge of the nose.
Maxillary sinuses
These sinuses articulate with the paranasal sinuses
Zygomatic processes
This process articulates with the zygomatic bone
Inferior orbital fissure
This fissure articulates with the floor of orbit.
Alveoli Margin
This part of the mandible articulates with the teeth.
bone and cartilage
The nasal cavity is constructed of bone and cartilage.
Ethmoid's cribiform plate
This makes up the roof of the nasal cavity.
Floor of nasal cavity/roof of mouth/hard palate
The palatine processes of the maxillae and horizontal plates of palatine bones make up the ______________.
meatus
means "passage"... example: the grooves formed by the chonche
chonchae
Swirling air through the _________ heats and moistens air; also, mucus filters through this.
orbits
Cone-shaped bony cavities; These hold the eyes, muscles that move the eye, some fat and tear-producing glands, and the optic canal.
optic canal
The optic nerve passes through the ____________.
7
How many bones form the orbit of the eye?
Sinuses
Air-filled sacs in the bones
Paranasal sinuses
Sinuses that cluster around and connect to the nasal cavity at meatus inferior.
paranasal sinuses
These sinuses are extensions of the nasal cavity and are lined by same mucous membrane and have same function.
hyoid bone
This is the U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone.
inferior
The hyoid bone lies _______ to the mandible.
greater horn, lesser horn, and body
Name the 3 parts that form the hyoid bone.
Hyoid bone
This is a movable base for the tongue and a point of attachment for the neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx during swallowing.
skull to pelvis
The vertebral column extends from the _____ to the _______.
lower limbs
The vertebral column transmits weight of truck to ______ ________.
vertebral column
This is a curved and flexible structure that protects the spinal cord.
vertebral column
The ribs and muscles of the neck and back attach to the __________ ________.
33
How many separate bones or vertebrae does a fetus or infant have?
24 (26 in all)
How many vertebrae bones does an adult have? excluding the sacrum and coccyx
sacrum and coccyx
The 9 extra vertebrae in infants fuse together to form the ______ and _______.
increase
As vertebrae go down, the bones _______ in size.
concave
cervical and lumbar curvatures are ______.