Math Terms

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Ratio
A comparison between two units that have something in common.
Rate
A comparison between two units that have nothing in common.
Unit Rate
A rate in which the second quantity in the comparison is one unit.
Proportion
A comparison between two rates or ratios that are equivalent.
Fraction
Part of a whole.
Decimal
A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point.
Percent
A ratio that compares a number to 100.
Rational Number
Any number that can be written in the form a/b where a and b are integers and b does not equal 0.
Reciprocal
When you flip the numerator and denominator of a fraction.
Multiplicative Inverse
One of two numbers whose product is 1. Also called reciprocal.
Factor
A number multiplied to another number to get a multiple.
Multiple
The product of two factors.
Greatest Common Factor
The largest factor that two or more numbers have in common. (GCF)
Least Common Multiple
The smallest multiple (other than zero) that two or more numbers have in common. LCM
Numerical Expression
An expression that contains only numbers and operations.
Negative Number
a number less than zero.
Positive Number
a number greater than zero.
Integer
Any whole number (both positive and negative) and zero.
Exponent
A mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.
Absolute Value
The distance a number is from zero on a number line
Additive Inverse
One of a pair of numbers whose sum is zero.
X-axis
The horizontal axis of the coordinate plane.
Y-axis
The vertical axis of the coordinate plane.
Coordinate Plane
A plane that is divided into four regions by a horizontal line called the x-axis and a vertical line called the y-axis.
Quadrant
one of four sections into which the coordinate plane is divided.
Ordered Pair
A pair of numbers used to locate a point on the coordinate plane.
Reflection
A transformation of a figure that flips the figure across a line.
Translation
A transformation that "slides" each point of a figure the same distance in the same direction.
Rotation
Turning around an axis or center point.
Variable
A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change.
Algebraic Expression
Mathematical phrase that includes one or more variables.
Term
A number, a variable, or the product of a number and a variable.
Constant
A value that does not change.
Coefficient
A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression.
Like Terms
Terms that have the same variables with the exact same exponents
Congruent
Having the same size and shape.
Area
A measure of how much surface an object covers.
Perimeter
The measure of the distance around a shape.
Circumference
The distance around a circle.
Diameter
A line that passes through the center of a circle and touches two points on the circumference.
Radius
A straight line from the center to the circumference of a circle.
Edge
The line along which two surfaces of a solid meet.
Vertex
Each angular point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other figure.
Face
a polygon that forms a surface of a prism.
Prism
A solid figure that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its bases. Its sides are parallelograms.
Pyramid
A solid shape with a polygon as a base and triangular faces that come to a point (vertex).
Sphere
A solid shape that is perfectly round like a ball. No faces, edges, or vertices.
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