Worlds Together Worlds Apart Chapter 1

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Terms in this set (...)

adaptation
the ability to alter behavior and to innovate beyond the current way of doing things
australopithecines
"Southern Ape of Africa", an early version of a hominid that was roughly the same size and had the same brain size of an ape, yet walked on two legs and was hunted. Adapted well to the world around them, and developed into six species
bipedalism
the single trait that gave hominids an advantage for survival
cognitive skills
increased powers of observation and memory, as well as problem solving and language
domesticate
to bring under human influence and control
evolution
the process where species adapt to the changing environments and climates to survive
hominids
one of the three groups that Africa's ape population separated into
Homo erectus
"Standing Man", descendant of the hominid that walked truly upright, had a large brain capacity, and was quicker to adapt to environmental changes than other hominids, one of the few species that survived until the arrival of Homo sapiens
Homo habilis
"Skillful Man", discovered by Mary and Louis Leakey, they made and used tools before anything else, but other than that not distinctly different from australopithecines, especially in terms of brain size
Homo sapiens
the descendants of hominids that eclipsed the Homo erectus, had larger intelligence than any other creature at the time, language skills, and excellent mobility
hunting and gathering
an early style of life that involved following the animals that were hunted as they migrated, and foraging for edible berries, grasses and grains, roots and possibly fishing
innovation
the process of learning and storing lessons to pass on to future generations
language
the use of sound to make words that when strung together convey complex meaning to others
migration
the act of leaving an area due to environmental changes, political reasons, or religious and/or cultural hostilities
pastoralism
the herding of domesticated animals like cattle, goats, and sheep
settled agriculture
the application of human labor and tools to a fixed plot of land and to cultivate and care for the land for several harvest seasons, a distinct change from the Hunter/Gatherer society that permeated early life in B.C.E as it requires a sedentary life in on place for a while
species
a group of animals or plants that possess one or more distinct characteristics
Charles Darwin concluded what?
All life had evolved over long periods from simple forms of matter.
Whats was the largest breakthrough?
The domestication of plants and animal life; the creation of Agrarian settlements.
Early humans had brains about how big compared to modern humans?
About 1/3 of the size
What caused some apes to evolve into precursors of humans?
The Ice Age
Other than bipedalism, what was the second trait that hominids had that helped them to thrive?
Opposable thumbs
How big were the groups that they lived in?
About 25 individuals, but they could have alliances with up to 500
What does the term "homo" mean?
True human
What was the biggest trait that aided the development of Homo Erectus
Extended periods of caring for young
What trait was decisive in the evolution of brain size and functioning?
Being able to cook food
Why do scholars believe women made a larger contribution than men?
Women had the responsibility of harvesting and preparation of food.
What animal was the first to be domesticated?
Dogs
What animals were second to be domesticated?
Sheep and goats
How did pastoralists survive?
They traded and lived closely with agricultural villages
Where was agricultural life most prevalent?
In the fertile crescent stretching from the Nile River to the Tigris and Euphrates in the Mesopotamian Empire
What is transhumance?
The movement of livestock seasonally over short distances between different elevations.
Which animal was the most important to be domesticated?
The horse
Where did the first agricultural revolution occur?
The Fertile Crescent
What was the normal European settlement comprised of?
Typically a few dozen mud hits, and long houses where produce and animals were kept.
Which animals were considered "self-domesticates"?
Llamas
What was one of the effects of settlement in villages?
The rise in extended family
Which shape does not exist in nature, and what did it reflect?
Rectangles; they reflected new attitudes and social behaviors.
What was gained by the introduction of interior walls?
Family members gained separate spaces and better privacy.
What became more pronounced during the gradual transition to an agriculturally based way of life?
Gender roles