Mineral exploration involves systematic geologic investigation using advanced technology.
Geophysical surveys—magnetism, gravity, radioactivity
Geochemical surveys—water, sediment, soil, and biota Sometimes advanced technology is not needed. For instance, enrichment may be indicated by brightly colored rock and soil. Once identified, the dimensions of a potential ore deposit are determined by geophysical response augmented by core drilling and geochemical assay. A shallow ore body is removed by open-pit mining. A deeper ore body necessitates underground mining.