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Bob Jones Physical Science 9: Chapter 2
Terms in this set (39)
Anything that occupies a volume of space and has mass
The Particle Model
The concept that all matter is made of exceedingly small particles. Also called atomism. It is one of the most fundamental concepts supporting models of the universe.
An extremely tiny bit of matter that can be treated as a physical system and which obeys physical principles. They can be molecules, atoms, or elementary particles like electrons or protons.
The basic particle of matter from which all other matter is constructed. It consists of protons, electrons, and (usually) neutrons.
A distinct particle formed when two or more atoms covalently bond together
In a closed container the rate of evaporation eventually equals the rate at which gas molecules return to the liquid.
An atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons, thus producing a charge imbalance between the number of protons and electrons in the particle.
A charged atomic or molecular particle with a net negative charge.
A charged atomic or molecular particle with a net positive charge.
A substance that contains only a single element or compound
A non chemical combination of two or more substances
A pure substance that contains only one kind of atom
A pure substance consisting of atoms of two or more elements bonded together in a fixed ratio.
A uniform mixture of particles of different substances that form a single phase. Also called a solution.
A non uniform mixture that contains two or more distinct phases, usually of different kinds of matter.
A physical form of matter determined by the arrangement and energy of its particles. The three most common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
A set of specified environmental or laboratory conditions that allow scientists to define SI(global scientific metric system) base units or to compare various properties of matter in a uniform and meaningful way.
The state of a substance in which its particles occupy fixed positions. It is rigid, or nearly so, and has a definite volume and shape and low compressibility.
The state of a substance in which its particles are close together but mobile. It has a definite volume but no fixed shape. It has low compressibility, can flow, and has a free surface in a less-than-full container.
The state of a substance in which its particles are far apart and have large kinetic energies. It has no fixed volume or shape, is highly compressible, and is able to flow.
Any property of matter that can be observed or measured without altering its chemical composition.
Any change that does not alter the composition of a substance or its nuclear properties.
A property of a substance that describes how it's chemical identity changes in the presence of another substance or under certain conditions.
Any change in a substance that alters its composition
The change in the energy or composition of an atom's nucleus when it emits or absorbs a particle or ray.
Any change of physical state from solid to liquid or liquid to gas vapor.
Change of State
When matter changes from one state to another. Can be called phase change as well.
The change of state from a solid to a liquid that occurs when a substance's temperature rises to its melting point.
The change of state from a liquid to a solid that usually occurs when a substance cools to its freezing point.
The change of state that occurs any time a liquid changes directly into a gas
Rate of Vaporization
How fast a liquid changes to a gas. Factors: temperature of the liquid, upward pressure of the gas escaping from the liquid,
Lecture: The pressure of the gas leaving the liquid. Text: The gas pressure exerted on the surface of a liquid by its vapor in a closed container when the gas and liquid are in equilibrium.
When all the particles have enough energy to overcome the attractive force, then the particles will be boiling. Boiling point changes with pressure. The vapor of a substance has more thermal energy than the liquid. The vapor of a substance, like all gases, exerts a pressure. Text: Rapid vaporization that occurs when a liquid's vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure and the static pressure in the liquid, causing it to form vapor bubbles.
Text: Relatively slow vaporization that occurs when a liquid's temperature is below its boiling point but above its freezing point. It occurs only at the surface of the liquid. Lecture: When a particle of liquid is moving fast enough that it has enough energy to overcome the attractive forces, it evaporates into a gas. It leaves the colder, slower particles behind.
The change of state directly from a solid to a vapor, bypassing the liquid state, at temperatures below the melting point of the substance.
The change from a vapor to the liquid state when the vapor cools below its dew point temperature. Lecture: Opposite of evaporation
The microscopic, random jostling of suspended matter due to the collisions of innumerable gas or liquid particles in which the matter is suspended.
The concept that tiny particles in constant, random motion make up all matter
The opposite of sublimation. The change of state of a vapor directly to a solid, bypassing the liquid state. This occurs when the vapor is in contact with a surface whose temperature is below its freezing point.
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