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82 terms

Nutrition & Digestion

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metabolism
body's use of foods after they have been digested, absorbed & circulated to cells
asssimilation
occurs when food molecules enter cells & undergo chemical changes
way body usses food is 1 definition of
metabolism
catabolism
chemical reaction releases energy from food molecules
catabolism
breakdown of food compounds into simpler compounds
anabolism
process of cells making complex compounds from simpler ones
make up process of metabolism
catabolism & anabolism
not part of metabolism
assimilation
liver cells
detoxify poisonous substances like bacteria & certain drugs
what liver cells can store
iron, vitamins A & D
carbohydrates aka
glucose
carbohydrates
perferred energy of body
glycolysis
uses no oxygen & takes place in cytoplasm of cell
citric acid cycle
takes place in mitochondria & is O2 using/aerobic process
electron transfer system
located in mitochondria
almost immediately transfers energy to molecules of ATP
electron transfer system
what body uses as source for immediate energy
ATP
glycogenesis
glucose anabolism
growth hormone & glucagon
increase blood sugar levels
vitamins
organic molecules needed for metabolism thru out body
vitamin molecules
attach to enzymes & help them work properly
which vitamins are fat soluble
Vitamins A, D, E & K
what type of vitamins can body store in liver for later use
fat soluble
which vitamins are water soluble
Vitamins B & C
type of vitamins body can't store
water soluble
minerals
inorganic elements/salts found naturally in earth
mineral ions
attach to enzymes & help them work
basal metabolic rate
# of calories of heat that must be produced per hr by catabolism to keep body alive, awake a& warm
total metabolic rate
total amt of energy used by body per day
kwashiorkor
advanced form of PCM, results from protein deficiency in presence of sufficient calories
alimentary canal aka
gastrointestinal or GI tract
1st process food undergoes
digestion
2nd process food undergoes
absorption
3rd process food undergoes
metabolism
these are performed by organs of digestive system
digestion & absorption
NOT performed by organs of digestive system
metabolism
food enters digestive tract thru
mouth
cone shaped, hangs down from center of soft palate
uvula
uvula & soft palate
prevent food & liquid from entering nasal cavities above mouth
portion of tooth that is exposed in mouth
crown
crown covered by
enamel
enamel is ?
hardest tissue in body
tooth decay aka
dental caries
one of the most common diseases in developed world
tooth decay
salivary glands
begins process of chemical digestion
parts of salivary glands
parotids, submandibulars & sublinguals
produced in salivary glands
salivary amylase
salivary amylase begins
chemical digestion of carbs
pharnyx
tube like structure that connects mouth & esophagus
pharnyx is also
pt of resp system
submucosa
a connective tissue layer, lies just below mucosa
submucosa has
many blood vessels & nerves
peristalsis
wavelike rhythmic contraction of muscular coat
peristalsis moves
food material thru digestive tube
muscularis
responsible for peristalsis
muscularis is important function in
digestive system & is 2 layers of muscle tissue
esophagus
a collapsible tube
esophagus extends
from pharnyx to stomach
3 divisions of stomach
fundus, body & pylorus
fundus might prevent
diaphragm from moving if u eat a large meal, u may have trouble breathing
stomach cancer linked to
excessive alcohol consumption, chewing tobacco, smoked/preserved foods
where are villi & microvilli contained
small intestine
villi & microvilli are ?
tiny fingers contain lymphatic vessel that aborbs lipids
liver produces
bile
largest gland in body
liver
the gallbladder does what?
stores & concentrates bile produced in liver
jaundice
an effect of untreated gallstones that block bile ducts
Hep A & B
both caused by virus, no difference between them
cirrhosis
not caused by virus
degenerative condition of liver associated w/ alcohol abuse
cirrohis
pancreative juice
most important digestive juice
pancreatic juice contains
enzymes that digest all 3 major kinds of foods
large intestine
some absorption of water, salts & vitamins occurs here
#1 order of poo thru L intestine
cecum
#2 order of poo thru L intestine
ascending colon
#3 order of poo thru L intestine
transverse colon
#4 order of poo thru L intestine
descending colon
#5 order of poo thru L intestine
sigmoid colon
#6 order of poo thru L intestine
rectum
#7 order of poo thru L intestine
anal canal
crohn's disease of
large intestine
type of autoimmune colitis
crohn's disease