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body's use of foods after they have been digested, absorbed & circulated to cells


occurs when food molecules enter cells & undergo chemical changes

way body usses food is 1 definition of



chemical reaction releases energy from food molecules


breakdown of food compounds into simpler compounds


process of cells making complex compounds from simpler ones

make up process of metabolism

catabolism & anabolism

not part of metabolism


liver cells

detoxify poisonous substances like bacteria & certain drugs

what liver cells can store

iron, vitamins A & D

carbohydrates aka



perferred energy of body


uses no oxygen & takes place in cytoplasm of cell

citric acid cycle

takes place in mitochondria & is O2 using/aerobic process

electron transfer system

located in mitochondria

almost immediately transfers energy to molecules of ATP

electron transfer system

what body uses as source for immediate energy



glucose anabolism

growth hormone & glucagon

increase blood sugar levels


organic molecules needed for metabolism thru out body

vitamin molecules

attach to enzymes & help them work properly

which vitamins are fat soluble

Vitamins A, D, E & K

what type of vitamins can body store in liver for later use

fat soluble

which vitamins are water soluble

Vitamins B & C

type of vitamins body can't store

water soluble


inorganic elements/salts found naturally in earth

mineral ions

attach to enzymes & help them work

basal metabolic rate

# of calories of heat that must be produced per hr by catabolism to keep body alive, awake a& warm

total metabolic rate

total amt of energy used by body per day


advanced form of PCM, results from protein deficiency in presence of sufficient calories

alimentary canal aka

gastrointestinal or GI tract

1st process food undergoes


2nd process food undergoes


3rd process food undergoes


these are performed by organs of digestive system

digestion & absorption

NOT performed by organs of digestive system


food enters digestive tract thru


cone shaped, hangs down from center of soft palate


uvula & soft palate

prevent food & liquid from entering nasal cavities above mouth

portion of tooth that is exposed in mouth


crown covered by


enamel is ?

hardest tissue in body

tooth decay aka

dental caries

one of the most common diseases in developed world

tooth decay

salivary glands

begins process of chemical digestion

parts of salivary glands

parotids, submandibulars & sublinguals

produced in salivary glands

salivary amylase

salivary amylase begins

chemical digestion of carbs


tube like structure that connects mouth & esophagus

pharnyx is also

pt of resp system


a connective tissue layer, lies just below mucosa

submucosa has

many blood vessels & nerves


wavelike rhythmic contraction of muscular coat

peristalsis moves

food material thru digestive tube


responsible for peristalsis

muscularis is important function in

digestive system & is 2 layers of muscle tissue


a collapsible tube

esophagus extends

from pharnyx to stomach

3 divisions of stomach

fundus, body & pylorus

fundus might prevent

diaphragm from moving if u eat a large meal, u may have trouble breathing

stomach cancer linked to

excessive alcohol consumption, chewing tobacco, smoked/preserved foods

where are villi & microvilli contained

small intestine

villi & microvilli are ?

tiny fingers contain lymphatic vessel that aborbs lipids

liver produces


largest gland in body


the gallbladder does what?

stores & concentrates bile produced in liver


an effect of untreated gallstones that block bile ducts

Hep A & B

both caused by virus, no difference between them


not caused by virus

degenerative condition of liver associated w/ alcohol abuse


pancreative juice

most important digestive juice

pancreatic juice contains

enzymes that digest all 3 major kinds of foods

large intestine

some absorption of water, salts & vitamins occurs here

#1 order of poo thru L intestine


#2 order of poo thru L intestine

ascending colon

#3 order of poo thru L intestine

transverse colon

#4 order of poo thru L intestine

descending colon

#5 order of poo thru L intestine

sigmoid colon

#6 order of poo thru L intestine


#7 order of poo thru L intestine

anal canal

crohn's disease of

large intestine

type of autoimmune colitis

crohn's disease

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