Sociology- Test: Chapter 1
Terms in this set (62)
-the scientific study of social behavior and human groups.
-Focuses on social relationships, how those relationships influence people's behavior and how societies (the sum total of those relationships) develop and change.
-influences on peoples behavior
-how societies develop and change
C. Wright Mills
coined the term "sociological imagination"
-enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography
-stressed the social context in which people live
-examine how these contexts influence peoples lives
-questions how groups influence people (Gang, ISIS)
-how people are influenced by their society
group of people who share a culture and a territory
-according to C. Wright Mills, meant that each society is located in a broad stream of events.
-gives each society characteristics such as ideas about proper roles for men and women
-according to C. Wright Mills, referred to peoples experiences within a specific historical setting, which gives the person orientation to life
3 Key Elements of Sociological Perspective/Imagination
1. the ability to view ones own society as and outsider rather than only from the perspective of personal experiences/ culture biases
2. allows us to go beyond personal experience and observations to understand broader public issues
3. allows us to look beyond a limited understanding of human behavior to see the world and its people in a new way and thru a broader lens then the one we might use.
the corners in life that people occupy because of their place in society(jobs, income, education, gender,race,age)
the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation
is sociology....it involves the organized systematic study of phenomena (human behavior) in order to enhance our understanding
study of the physical features of nature and the way in which they interact and change (biology, chemistry, geology, physics, astronomy)
study of the social features of humans (behavior/interaction) and the ways in which they interact and change (sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology, political science)
The Research Model
1. Select Topic
2. Define Problem
3. Review the Literature
4. Formulate a hypothesis
5. Choose research method (surveys, case studies,experiment)
6. Collect data
7. Analyze the results
8. Share the results
Origins of Sociology
-emerged during the middle 1800s just before the Industrial Revolution
-Social observers began to use the scientific method to test their ideas
>with traditional answers failing, the next step was
to apply the scientific method to questions about
social life...the result was birth of sociology!
-masses of people started moving to the cities abandoning the lands they were familiar with
-families live on the edge of starvation as a result
Auguste' Comte (1798-1857)
Explain his way of thinking....
"father of sociology"
-founder of positivism
-suggest we apply the scientific method to social world
-wondered what holds society together?
-what creates social order, instead of anarchy/chaos?
-why on society becomes set on a particular course?
-what causes societies to change?
theory that knowledge can be acquired only thru direct observation and experimentation
-the application of the scientific approach to the
Comte Hierarchy of the Sciences
-Discover social principles
-Apply social reform
Emile Durkhiem (1858-1917)
-major work was the study of suicide: Division of Labor
-goal was to show how social forces affect peoples behavior
-conducted research by comparing the suicide rate of several european countries
-believed that modern societies produce feelings of isolation much of which come from the division of labor
Explain the relationship between suicide and division of labor.
He relates work to suicide by explaining the stress people are put under spending so much time at work rather than at home with their families. Once the Industrial Revolution came around they were forced to leave their families for the city life, meaning the family would starve without the primary provider.
What 3 things does sociology primarily focus on? (Think sociological focus)
1. Social relationships
2. Influences on peoples behavior
3. How societies develop and change
coined the term "sociology"
-people are more likely to commit suicide if their ties to their community are weak, if they are isolated
-social factors underlie suicide
social integration (social cohesion)
-the degree to which members of a group or society feel united by shared values and other social bonds
>take someone and put them in a work
environment where they can talk to others to
as all causes of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself which he knows will produce this result...suicide
4 Types of Suicide
when a persons ties to a group and collectivities are weakened (being cut off from sorority/fraternity...relationship with the group tarnished)
result of individuals being so attached to the group that for the good of the group, they commit suicide (ISIS, cults- terrorism for the betterment of the group)
result of deregulation of individuals desires and passions (when an individual has been torn down repeatedly to the point of suicide, molestation/but they are still human/have sexual desires)
is the result of "excessive regulation" in which an individual experiences pervasive oppression (pertaining to race, gender, social status keeping you down because you cannot move forward)
Max Weber (1864-1920)
-associated with functionalist perspective
-to comprehend behavior, learn the subjective meaning people attach to their actions and how they themselves view and explain their behaviors
-developed ideal type
-used cross cultural and historical materials to trace the causes of social changes and to determine how social groups affect peoples orientations to life (the exposures we have had affect our daily behaviors and how we influence others)
german word for "understanding" or "insight" in their intellectual work
-members of society have to work together to make society work for the better of everybody (ex: you need your heart for your whole body to function)
a construct or model for evaluating specific causes
(what has caused us to act a certain way)
-focused on class and status
-whether you were rich or poor
-the position you hold in your society
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
>showed the relationship between the cultural
values of capitalism in the Protestant Revolution
and the rise of the capitalism in the West
-thought that people should try to change society
-society has two classes
1. bourgeoisie - capitalists who are rich
2. proletariat - the exploited workers
-believed that society was fundamentally divided between two classes that clashed in pursuit of their own interests
(we as a society are too busy trying to get to the top and not helping each other more)
-conflict between the two classes where society is constantly struggling
-the tension between two groups over power or the allocation of resources
Communist Manifesto - argued that the masses of people with no resources other than their labor should unite to fight for the overthrowing of the capitalist society
W. E. B. Dubois
-first black sociologist from the US
-associated with the feminist perspective
-student of Max Weber
-believed that knowledge was essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance/justice
-social activist (started the NAACP in 1909)
-saw the importance of religion to society
-egalitarian society = everyone is equal
a belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic affects
"The Souls of Black Folk"
W.E.B. Dubois wrote, used the metaphor 'veil' to describe the term 'double consciousness'.
Describe the Sociological Imagination
The sociological imagination is your point of view of the world as only you can see it from the outside looking in.
It is how you view your society as an outsider, how you go beyond your personal experiences to view society, and how you look at society from a different perspective.
Explain double consciousness and in your opinion what this consciousness has on the self...
In 1897 Dubois coined the term double consciousness. This term refers to the division of an African Americans identity into two or more social realities or in lamens terms, what it means being black in white America. He used the metaphor 'veil' to describe this term in his book 'The Souls of Black Folk".
I think this concept has a huge negative effect on the individual. Trying to merge two selves into a whole self is exhausting and overwhelming. However true this term was in the past, it should have no place today as we all should put our energy into being one better, truer self that sees equality in all.
Summarize the contributions of Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, and W.E.B. Dubois.
Note any theoretical differences!
Emile Durkhiem-study of suicide, the Division of Labor
Max Weber-functionalist perspective
Karl Marx-conflict perspective
W.E.B. DuBois-feminist perspective, knowledge is essential to overcoming
Describe the differences/similarities between conflict theory/functionalist theory...
W.E.B. Dubois major works...
-The Philadelphia Negro
-The Souls of Black Folk
-The Crisis Magazine
-successfully combined theory and research
-noted the different way in which people attempt to achieve success in life
-Macro Level / Micro Level
people who accept the goal of pursuing material wealth but use illegal means to do so (robbery, burglary, extortion)
2 Approaches to Society: per Morton
1. Macro Level- concentrates on larger scale phenomena or entire civilizations (Emile Durkhiem: Division of Labor)
2. Micro Level- stresses the study of small groups often thru experimental means (university studying certain types
cancer that affect Black women)
help keep a group in balance, refers to the beneficial consequences of peoples actions (anything that affects a
consequences that harm society and undermine a systems equilibrium
a position people occupy in a hierarchy that is shaped by economic criteria including wealth and income
visible and intended effects of social structures
(put there for a and intended reason like the location of HCC, JSU)
invisible and unintended effects of social structures
(when church becomes a negative aspect of that community, the JPSS being on probation)
Symbolic Interactionist Theory
-George Herbert Mead
-focuses on interpersonal communication in micro-level settings
-emphasizes the reasons for why people do what they do and the meanings they attach to it
-sociological framework in which human beings are viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects (phones hindering our generation)
generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
-claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a persons opportunities in life
male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention
female sociologist that studied what it meant to be female and black in American society
-wanted equality for all females
George Herbert Mead
-founder of the interactionist(symbolic) perspective