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Nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs in the...


energy moves through the sun's ____ by means of the rising of hot gas and falling of cooler gas

convection zone

nearly all the visible light we see from the Sun is emitted from the ___


Most of the Sun's ultraviolet light is emitted from the narrow layer called the ____ where temperature increases with altitude


we can see the sun's ____ most easily during total solar eclipses


the ___ is the layer of the Sun between its core and convection zone

radiation zone

Rank these layers based on their distance from the Sun's center, from greatest to least.

corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, radiation zone, core

Rank the layers of the Sun based on their density, from highest to lowest.

core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona

Rank the following layers of the Sun based on their temperature, from highest to lowest.

core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere

Rank the following layers of the Sun based on the pressure within them, from highest to lowest.

core, radiation zone, convective zone, photosphere

In which layer of the Sun does nuclear fusion occur?


Which of the following layers of the Sun can be seen with some type of telescope?

corona, chromosphere, photosphere

What would happen if the fusion rate in the core of the Sun were increased but the core could not expand?

The Sun's core would start to heat up and the rate of fusion would increase even more.

Overall, the Sun's average density is roughly the same as that of ___


The Sun spins on its axis roughly once each


The primary source of the Sun's energy is

fusion of light nuclei to make heavier ones

A typical solar granule is about the size of

large U.S. state

As we move to greater and greater distances above the solar photosphere, the temperature in the Sun's atmosphere

first decreases and then increases

The time between successive sunspot maxima is about

a decade

The solar neutrino problem is that

we detect fewer solar neutrinos than we expect

What is the single most important characteristic in determining the course of a star's evolution?


On the H-R diagram, red supergiants like Betelguese lie

at the top right

In the H-R diagram, the bright blue-white stars that dominate the naked eye sky lie to the

top left

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram plots ________ against the spectral type or temperature.

luminosity or absolute magnitude

Which of the following is the most common type of star?

low mass main sequence

On the H-R diagram, the Sun lies

about the middle of the main sequence

Stars that have masses similar to the Sun's, and sizes similar to the Earth are

white dwarfs

The most famous G type star is:

the sun

What physical property of a star does the spectral type measure?


What are the two most important intrinsic properties used to classify stars?

luminosity and surface temperature

what is proper motion

It is the annual apparent motion of a star across the sky.

The "Solar Neutrino Problem" refers to the fact that astronomers

detect only a third of the number of neutrinos expected by theory

The number of sunspots and solar activity in general peaks

every 11 years

What is probably responsible for the INCREASE in temperature of the corona far from the Sun's surface?

the suns magnetism

If neutrinos can escape from the solar core within minutes, then how long does it take a photon to escape?

millions of years

The proton-proton cycle involves what kind of fusion process?

hydrogen into helium

The Sun is stable as a star because

gravity balances forces from pressure

The density of the Sun is most similar to that of


The visible light we see from our Sun comes from which part?


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