Public Health-Chapter 3

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Terms in this set (35)
Crude Ratesare those in which the denominator includes the total populationCrude death rateThe total number of deaths in a given year from all causes, divided by the midyear populationSpecific Ratesmeasure the morbidity and mortality for a particular population for a specific diseaseNotifiable diseasesinfectious diseases that become epidemics for which health officials keep weekly recordsNational Electronic Telecommunications System (NETS)State departments summarize these reports and relay them to the CDCYears of Potential Loss (YPLL)calculated by subtracting a person's age at death from a predefined standard age - Measures the importance of various infectious diseasesDisability- adjusted life years (DALYs)One year lost of your healthy lifeHealth-adjusted life expectancy (HALE)the # of years of a healthy life expected, on average, in a given population or region of the worldVital Statisticsare statistical summaries of vital records, that is, records of major life eventsDescriptive Studiesseek to describe the extent of disease in regard to person, time, and placeEpidemic CurveCases of disease by the time or date of onset of their symptomsCommon Source Epidemic CurveEach case can be traced to the same exposureIncubation PeriodTime between exposure and onset of symptomsPoint source VS. Continuous sourcepoint = exposure occurs at a specific source continuous = exposure is continuousPropagated Epidemic CurvePrimary cases appear 1st at the end of the incubation period period followed by the exposure to the infected sourceDescriptive Study1st to be carried out Provide valuable information to health care providers and administrators, enabling them to allocate the resources efficiently and plan effective prevention and educationAnalytic Study2nd to be carried out Purpose to test a hypothesis bout relationships between health problems and possible risk factorsObservational Studiesthe investigators simply observes the natural course of events, taking note of who is exposed or unexposed and who has or has not developed the disease of interestCross sectional studyindividuals are simultaneously classified according to their exposure to the diseaseCase/ Control Studiesanalytic study that compare people with disease (case) and healthy people (control) that are similar as possibleCohort Studiesepidemiological studies in which the researcher selects a cohort or a large number of subjects who do not already have the outcome or disease of interestExperimental Studiescarried out to identify the cause of disease or to determine the effectiveness of prevention methods such as vaccinesRandomizationAssigning subjects to treatments or control groups in a completely random mannerBlindingThe practice in which the investigators and or subjects remains uninformed of the groups to which subjects are assigned throughout the experimentCriteria of Causation1.) Strength 2.) Consistency 3.) Temporality 4.) Biological Plausibility