298 terms

History Exam Study Guide

Frame of Reference
seeing things differently based on WHERE a person is
Point of View
seeing things differently based on WHO a person is
something which, throughout history, has motivated people to act
the ability to take what one wants and keep what one has
wealth, force, and votes
3 types of power
man's insight int morality and immortality; it teaches you what's wrong and what's right
this includes water and natural resources
Jesus is born. His Christian church would be one of the greatest influences on Western Civilization.
Leif Ericsson and a band of Vikings become the first Europeans to the New World intentionally.
William the Conquerer and his Norman army defeat the Saxons and start the modern country of England.
King John signs the Magna Carta, forever limiting the power of English kings.
Christopher Columbus discovers the New World while working for the Spanish King and Queen.
The Spanish Armada is lost. Spain will never again be the most powerful country in Europe.
Jamestown, the first pernament English Colony on North America, is founded
The first black African slaves are sold to the English colonists in North America.
Declaration of Independence is signed. The United States becomes a seperate nation
a loosely formed alliance
an animal which is the witch's channel to the devil
someone who belongs to a group but doesn't believe everything that the group believes
a document giving official permission to do something
shared area in middle of town
Religious Toleration
the ability to practice one's religion freely and openly
saying untrue things about people in public which damages reputation
Someone who gives up their life for a cause
A document contract
raised platform where people are hanged
kicked out of an area and not allowed to return
someone who doesn't believe in the use of force
Johnothan Winthrop
Who lead the great migration?
James I
Who caused the great migration?
How many puritans went to Massachusetts?
Charles I
Who was James I son?
Gambling, clothes, palaces, and hunting
What did Charles I enjoy unlike the other Puritans?
The Puritans
Who won in the war between king Charles and the Puritans?
In what year was King Charles killed beheaded?
Oliver Cromwell
Who became "king" after the Puritans beheaded Charles I
Puritan Lord Protector of England
What did Oliver Cromwell wish to be called other than king?
Power and order was lost
What happened when Oliver Cromwell's son tried to assume the throne when he died?
They were hidden by the other nobles who were loyal to him
What happened to Charles I children when he was beheaded?
Who did Charles II grow up with when he was hidden?
When was the famous Restoration? (Charles II returned to power)
He rode out as a women, he faked a servant boy and served dinner to the people chasing him
When Charles II was young he tried to return to England many times, what are two examples?
He converted to Catholicism
What did Charles II do on his death bed that worried the other nobles?
He was Charles II little brother
Who was James II?
What religion was King James II wife?
Was James II thought to be catholic secretly?
To give up the throne and never return
What does abdicate mean?
When James II was forced to abdicate
What was the Glorious Revolution?
He believed in absolute monarch
Why was James II forced to abdicate?
A king with no limits on his power
What is an absolute monarch? (DR of K)
William(lord of orange) and Mary
Who took the throne after James II (you know this one, its the fruit)
King James II sister
Who was Mary?
They converted to Anglicans
What religion did Mary and William convert to when they took the throne?
They had limited power and they had certain conditions
What were the terms of the agreement when Mary and william became king and queen
The list of rights that made Parliament and everyone
What was the English Bill of Rights?
He was a Quaker and son of Admiral Penn
Who was William the Wise
Were Quakers pacifists?
Normally commoners didn't touch kings
Why was it significant that when William Penn met the king he shook hands with him?
He kicked him out
What did Admiral Penn do to his son?
He gave William Pennsylvania
When Admiral Penn died, what did the king give William because he was in debt to Admiral Penn?
Indian trouble
Pennsylvania had the least amount of what?
Certain rights given by God to each human being
What does Natural Rights mean?
All Religions
In Pennsylvania what religions were aloud?
The area know as the lower 3 counties broke off of Pennsylvania and became what?
He invented glasses, stove, he worked with electrity, among many other things
What did Benjamin Franklin invent?
One who speaks to other countries on behaf of other countries
What is a statesman?
He had to read all the stories he printed 4 times
How did Ben Franklin become learned when he was a printer?
Poor Richards Almanac
When Franklin got older he bought his Brothers printing company and printed what famous book?
Ben Franklin's pen name
Who was Poor Richard?
Someone who is good at many different things
What is a Renaissance man?
Sir George Calvert because the king felt bad for kicking him out of the throne
Who was given Maryland and why?
Cecil Calvert
Although Sir George was given Maryland who did he send to run it?
What was the main religion in Maryland?
Was Maryland a successful colony?
Catholics got Baltimore and Protestants got Annapolis
eventually protestants became more plentiful in Maryland than Catholics and didn't want to listen to them, who got what?
The act of toleration in Maryland (1649)
What was the first law saying that people could not be discriminated against if they were of the Christian religion?
The plantation owners
Back in Virginia who had the real money and power?
Very rich and nice
How was plantation life?
Something that appears impossible, but is true
What is a paradox?
Were the Carolinas originally together?
How many lords did the Carolinas originally have?
They wanted wine silk and olive oil
What did the carolinas plan to have?
Lots, they had a Jewish colony
Did the Carolinas have religious toleration?
South Carolina
When the Carolinas split which had more slaves?
N.C. was a hot bed of_________ activity?
Gullah, many other languages
What was the name of the slave language and what did it consist of?
Africa (for slaves)
The triangle trade was between 2 countries that might change and one permanent one, what was the permanent one?
Virginia, England, Barbados, and Charleston
Some of the other stops at the triangle trade were?
Virgina's black codes turned slaves into what?
Capture them or to African tribes would wage war on each other and the winner would sell the loser
Two ways to get slaves were to either
To work for a few years then be set free
What was the original idea for slaves?
George I
who was Georgia named after?
George I spoke...
Broken English
George II spoke...
Perfect English but occasionally went insane
George III spoke...
Starting a new colony (Georgia)
What did James Oglethorp think of
A prison for people in dept (you stay till you pay)
What is debtors prison?
When the Spanish attacked Georgia, who won?
A place that splits on the rivers
What is a divide? (geographical term)
The rain coming from the west will go into the gulf, rain coming from the east will flow into the Atlantic Ocean
Appalachians split eastern America from western America. How does this affect the rain?
He created a path across the appalachians
What did Daniel Boone do?
through the Cumberland Gap
Where did Daniel Boone create the path?
becauase he was the smartest architecht
why was daniel boone constantly harrassed by indians
because the didn't to be spending extra money for a road and a colony
why did the british want to stop boones path
something that can not be taken away except through proccess of law
what is a right
something that you needs someones permission to do and can be easily taken away
what is a privilege
Western South America, Central America, and Southwestern North America
What land in America did Spanish control at the height of their power?
New York (and New Jersey)
What land in America did the Dutch control at the height of their power?
When were the Dutch kicked out of America?
The Swedes
Who did the Dutch conquer in America?
New Jersey
What American land did the Swedes control at the height of their power?
Eastern South America (Brazil)
What land in America did the Portuguese control at the height of their power?
Everything east of the Mississippi River (the eastern coast of North America in the beginning)
What American land did the English control at the height of their power?
The north and west in North America
What American land did the French control at the height of their power?
They had Indian relations
What advantage did the French have in North America?
A good scout system
What advantage did the French have because of their Indian relations?
True or false? Great Britain had a smaller population than France in North America?
Did Great Britain have control of the shipping lanes?
Weapons and other items that would make the Indians' lives easier
What did the British have that the Indians wanted?
Attack outlying settlements that are closest to the French territory
What would the French do in conflict with the British?
Attack major French fortresses and towns
What would the British do in conflict with the French?
It would be given back to make peace
What would happen when either England or France took a piece of land?
King William's War
What was the first war?
The French tried to take New York
What happened during King William's War?
Queen Anne's War
What was the second war?
Great Britain takes Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay
What happened during Queen Anne's War?
King George's War
What was the third war?
Great Britain took Louisbourg
What happened during King George's War?
Four wars
How many wars were fought between the British and French in North America?
The French and Indian War
What was the fourth war called in America?
The Seven Years War
What was the fourth war called in the rest of the world other than America?
The Ohio Company (and Britain)
What company encouraged the settlement of the Ohio area?
On what side was Fort Duquesne?
George Washington
Who brought the militia to Fort Duquesne and founded Fort Necessity?
On what side was Fort Necessity?
General Braddock
Who's army attacked the French of Fort Duquesne and was killed?
The new prime minister
What role of government was William Pitt at at his highest position?
Fredrick of Prussia
Who and what country did Britain support at the beginning of the Seven Years War?
To draw the troops in America out
Why did Britain support Fredrick of Prussia?
enthusiasm for a cause
Pay more taxes now, and get rich from the traders in America
What did William Pitt say to get money for the war?
The second and third greatest navies' amount of ships times two
What was the formula for how many ships Britain had to have?
Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe
Who were two outstanding commanders that were sent to North America?
By what year was Great Britain winning around the world?
By what year did Spain enter the war as France's ally?
By what year was the Treaty of Paris?
Treaty of Paris 1763
What is the official name of the treaty that ended the Seven Years War?
All the land east of the Mississippi River and Florida
What land was England given?
New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi River
What land was Spain given?
True or false? France was kicked off America as a result of the Treaty of Paris?
Which piece of land was retaken by the Spanish after they gave it to England?
There were no more enemies to the Indians other than the British
Why did the British stop supplying guns to the Indians?
True of false? It did not matter that the Indians did not get any more guns because they still knew how to hunt with bows and arrows.
What language did George I speak?
Scattered English
What language did George II speak?
Fluent English
What language did George III speak?
Foolish and mad
Describe George III.
Everything on the east of the Appalachians were for the British, everything west until the Mississippi was for the Indians
What did the Proclamation Line of 1763 say?
The colonists themselves fought the battle
What was important about Pontiac's rebellion?
Land speculators
Who did the the Proclamation Line anger most?
people who buy land in hopes that the price will rise
When was the Magna Carta signed?
The Pope
Who did King John quarrel with at first?
Nothing would be official that was usually performed by the church
When the Pope closed the churches in England, why was this a problem?
What was the island in the Thames River that the nobles took King John to?
something that cannot be taken away except through due process of law
something that needs permission and can be taken away
Trial by jury of peers
What was the first right given to nobles after the Magna Carta?
The right of habeas corpus
What right said that the police must account for a person's arrest by informing that person of the charge against him?
Cannot testify against oneself
What right stopped the effectiveness of torture on people?
You have the right to remain silent
What do policemen say first?
When was the English Bill of Rights signed?
King William and Queen Mary
Who signed the English Bill of Rights?
Did the Americans consider themselves Englishmen and want the rights of the people in England?
The Stamp Act in 1765
What was the first act to be passed upon the Americans and when was it passed?
refusal to buy something
Anything made in Britain
What was boycotted during the Stamp Act?
The Stamp Act Congress
What was formed as a result of the Stamp Act?
Taxes on lots of imports and were passed in 1767
What were the Townshend Acts and when were they passed?
external tax
tax which is added to the price of an item
internal tax
if the tax is already in the price
Another boycott
What was the reaction to the Townshend Acts?
By 1770, all Townshend Acts were repealed except for the tax on...
When did the Boston Massacre occur?
How many regiments of regulars were sent to Boston?
someone who is extreme in their thoughts or actions
Five died
How many people died as a result of the the Boston Massacre?
When did the Boston Tea Party occur?
The Intolerable Acts
What were the Coercive Acts called by the Americans?
How many Coercive Acts were there?
The Boston Port Act
Which act closed the port of Boston?
The Administration of Justice Act
Which act said that any British soldier charged with a crime would be tried in a different colony or in Britain?
The Quartering Act
Which act gave the British soldiers logings in the colonists' houses? This act was hated especially much.
The Massachusetts Government Act
Which act got rid of the colonists' elected government?
The Quebec Act
Which act extended the boundary of Quebec into the Ohio area?
They brought the colonists together because the punishment was so severe
What did the Coercive Acts do and why?
General Gage
Who was named the commander of all the forces in America?
Which was the first of six states that were declared in open rebellion?
When the army is allowed to take control
What is martial law?
That the army could take charge
What did being declared in open rebellion mean?
Samuel Adams
Who was the firebrand who lived in New England?
The muscle of the Revolution (the men who would beat up proBritish people)
What were the Sons of Liberty?
Was Samuel Adams an agitator?
Thomas Paine
Who was the firebrand who lived in one of the middle colonies?
He was an author of pamphlets
What did Thomas Paine do?
"Common Sense"
What was one famous pamphlet that was written by Thomas Paine?
That the monarchy was a poor form of government, that Great Britain was hurting the economy with taxed and trade restrictions, and how does a small island 3,000 miles away get to rule a full continent
What did "Common Sense" express as its main ideas?
"The Crisis"
What is a famous pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that is available for extra credit?
Patrick Henry
Who was the firebrand who lived in one of the southern colonies?
Was Patrick Henry a horrible orator?
Give me liberty or give me death!
What were Patrick Henry's famous words?
telling a story in such a way that the listener must arrive at a certain conclusion
Sam Adams and the Boston "Massacre"
What was an example of propaganda during the Revolution?
enthusiasm for a cause
someone who buys something because they think the price will go up
area of control
something that cannot be taken away except through due process of law
habeas corpus
to have the body; the right to know what one is being accused of
requires permission
refusal to buy something
external tax
taxes added to the price
internal tax
taxes already added into the price
a person with extreme ideas
to force someone to do something
telling a story in such a way that the listener must arrive at a certain conclusion
Trying to get the government to change something.
The people want a whole different goverment.
How many troops did the British have?
How many mercenaries did the British have?
Soldiers who work for money rather than Patrionism or cause.
How many troops did the Americans rarely have?
Another name for Americans.
Second Continental Congress
This congress was more radical than the First Continental Congress.
Who believed force was now necessary?
What did the Second Continental Congress seek?
Olive Branch Petition
Which petition was written to try and get George III to consider peace one more time?
John Dickenson
Who wrote the Olive Branch Petition?
George III
Who would not accept to read the Olive Branch Petition?
He had already decided to fight
What was the reason George III wouldn't read the Olive Branch Petition?
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys
Who took Crown Point and Ft. Ticonderoga?
Bunker Hill
What was the battle fought on Breed's Hill called?
How many British casualties were there during Bunker Hill?
How many American casualties were there during Bunker Hill?
Soldiers who are killed or are so badly injured that they cannot continue to fight.
George Washington
Who was chosen to command the army established by the Congress?
He had military experience and was from the south
Why was Washington chosen to command?
Dorchester Heights
What area did Washington fortify?
General Gage
Who was removed because he was too timid?
Sir William Howe
Who replaced General Gage?
Where did the Loyalists flee with Howe?
Someone who is loyal to the crown (the king of Britain).
Who did British expect help from? (mainly in the south)
Where was the first place the British tried to take during the three expeditions/
Benedict Arnold
Who was chased off during the fight for Quebec?
Where was the second place the British tried to take during the three expeditions?
Fort Moultrie
What fort did the Patriots build in Charleston?
Palmetto Logs
What was Fort Moutlrie made of?
New York City
Where was the final place the British went during the three expeditions?
To use mercenaries
What was George III's plan?
Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness
What are the three natural rights?
To protect natural rights
Why did people create government?
Organization, foreign assistance, money, and unbreakable will
What did the Americans need?
A soldier leaves without permission and isn't coming back.
A soldier is absent without permission, but they are coming back.
Who else joined the continental army?
France, Holland, and Spain
Where did America need foreign aid from?
Marquis de Lafayette
Who was a field general and like a son to Washington? (French)
Baron Friedrich von Steuben
Taught discipline to the US army, had colorful language. (Prussian)
Casimir Pulaski
Was a cavalry officer (men who rode on horses). (Polish)
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Designed fortifications at West Point. (Polish)
Haym Salomon
Was a financier. (Jewish)
The Battle of Brooklyn Heights
When did Howe defeat the Americans?
Winter Quarters
What did the British need in preparation for winter?
Nathan Hale
Who was a spy that got hanged?
For being a spy
Why was Nathan Hale hanged?
New Jersey
Where did Washington retreat to?
The British not following Washington to New Jersey
What was the first big mistake of the war that the British made?
Who did Washington strike in Trenton and Princeton?
Winter Quarters
Where soldiers stayed during winter.
Johnny Burgoyne
Which British general had a good plan?
The Battle of Saratoga
Which battle was considered the turning point of the war?
Who left Colonel St. Leger's army?
Horatio Gates
Who stopped Burgoyne's advance (not really)?
Benedict Arnold
Who really won the battle, without Horatio Gates taking all the credit?
Who became an ally of America?
John Paul Jones
Who sailed a ship called the Ranger to France?
Bonhamme Richard
What ship did the French give to John Paul Jones?
This city fell in December of 1778.
This city fell in May of 1780.
The Swamp Fox
What name did Francis Marion get?
Who got caught in a French trap?
Which French general and his army were assisting Washington?
Who came to help Washington from water, but could only help for two weeks? (French)
Where did Cornwallis surrender?
The Articles of Confederation
What was the first American goverment?
A loosely formed alliance.
The Northwest Ordinance
The area that didn't fall within any state was like a colony.
What did new territories become?