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World History Ch.14 vocab.

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simony
bishops sold positions in the Church
Gothic
a style of architecture created in the early 1100's
Urban II
pope who called for the First Crusade (1042-1099)
Crusade
holy war
Saladin
Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader
Richard the Lion-Hearted
an English king who lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin.
Reconquista
long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain
Inquisition
court held by the Church to supress heresy
three-field system
farmers could grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year, not just half of it
guild
organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
Commercial Revolution
expansion of trade and business
burghers
merchent-class town dwellers
vernacular
everyday language of their homeland
Thomas Aquinas
he argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
scholastics
schoolmen
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Henry II
king of France from 1547 to 1559
common law
England's royal judges formed a unified body of law
Magna Carta
A legal document written by English lords in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the King
parliament
legislative group
Hugh Capet
undistinguished duke from the middle of France
Philip II
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
Estates-General
meeting
Avignon
place where french popes resided
Great Schism
division
John Wycliffe
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
Jan Hus
professor in Bohemia, taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the Pope
bubonic plague
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people
Hundred Years' war
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Joan of Arc
peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war