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World History Ch.14 vocab.
bishops sold positions in the Church
a style of architecture created in the early 1100's
pope who called for the First Crusade (1042-1099)
Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader
Richard the Lion-Hearted
an English king who lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin.
long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain
court held by the Church to supress heresy
farmers could grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year, not just half of it
organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
expansion of trade and business
merchent-class town dwellers
everyday language of their homeland
he argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
king of France from 1547 to 1559
England's royal judges formed a unified body of law
A legal document written by English lords in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the King
undistinguished duke from the middle of France
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
place where french popes resided
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
professor in Bohemia, taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the Pope
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people
Hundred Years' war
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Joan of Arc
peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war