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53 terms

Art History Exam 1

vocab words for Art History Images Test I: Antiquity to Middle Ages
STUDY
PLAY
megalith
a large prehistoric stone monument
post-and-lintel
a structure consisting of vertical beams (posts) supporting a horizontal beam (lintel)
corbel vault
A vault formed by progressively projecting courses of stone or brick, which eventually meet to form the highest point of the vault.
mastaba
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
step pyramid
a pyramid whose sides rise in a series of giant steps
obelisk
a stone pillar having a rectangular cross section tapering towards a pyramidal top
relief
sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the surrounding background
sunken relief
where the outlines of the figures have been carved into the surface of the stone, instead of being formed by cutting away the background
column
(architeture) a tall cylindrical vertical upright and used to support a structure
hieroglyph
a writing system using picture symbols
papyrus
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.
Amarna Style
Art created during the reign of Akhenaton, which features a more relaxed figure style than in Old and New Kingdom art
cyclopean masonry
A method of stone construction, named after the mythical Cyclopes, using massive, irregular blocks without mortar, characteristic of the Bronze Age fortifications of Tiryns and other Mycenaean sites.
kouros
Greek word for "male youth." An Archaic Greek statue of a standing, nude youth.
kore
an Archaic Greek statue of a standing, draped female
cella
the chief room of a Greek temple, where the statue of the god was located and, frequently, the temple's treasure was kept.
colonnade
a structure composed of a series of arches supported by columns
Doric order
the oldest and simplest of the Greek orders of architecture, defined by fluted columns, smooth capitals, and square abacus
capital
The uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. In classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order.
fluting
the vertical grooving on a column
entablature
The upper section of a classical building, resting on the columns and constituting the architrave, frieze, and cornice
architrave
the horizontal element above the columns; supports frieze
frieze
an architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice
cornice
projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars)
triglyph
a triple projecting, grooved member of a Doric frieze that alternates with metopes
metope
a small relief sculpture on the facade of a Greek temple
stylobate
The uppermost course of the platform of a Greek temple, which supports the columns.
pediment
triangular part above columns in Greek buildings
contrapposto
a graceful arrangement of the body based on tilted shoulders and hips and bent knees/weight shift/one foot tension one foot relaxed
Athena
(Greek mythology) goddess of wisdom and useful arts and prudent warfare
Pheidian style
after the maker of the parthenon. architecture and sculpture style, where figures are aloof, detached, idealism, perfect forms, body w/o emotion. another term for high classical.
Ionic order
the second Greek order of architecture, with columns that had an elaborated base and a capital carved into double scrolls that looked like the horns of a ram (feminine in comparison to Doric)
Corinthian Order
Most ornate (and feminine) of the orders- contains a base, a fluted column shaft, and the capital is elaborate and decorated with leaf carvings
volute
ornament from Ionic capital resembling a rolled scroll
acanthus
An ambigious flower and a style of plant used for the caps of the corinthian columns
mausoleum
monumental tomb; first constructed as a tomb for Mausolos
Old Kingdom Egypt
3100-2200 BCE
Imhotep
Name of the architect who designed the Step Pyramid
Khufu (Cheops)
The Great Pyramid of Giza was built for This pharoah, Egyptian pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid; Khufu is his Egyptian name and Cheops is his Greek name
Khafre (Chefren)
son of Khufu; builder of the second largest pyramid of Giza; builder of the Great Sphinx
Menkaure (Mycerinus)
successor of King Khafre; last pyramid tomb
New Kingdom Egypt
1500-1162 BCE
Minoan Art
Island of Crete
Mycenaean Art
Mainland Greece
Aegean
an arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey
Archaic
600-500 BCE
Classical
480-400 BCE
Polykleitos
High Classical Sculptor; devised mathematical formula for representing the perfect male body; famous work=Doryphoros (bronze statue of young man holding spear)
Ictinus and Callicrates
architects of Parthenon
Pheidias
Considered to be the greatest sculptor in ancient Greece. Pericles asked him to design the sculptures for the Parthenon and the statue of Athena.
Late Classical
(4th Century BCE)
Praxiteles
ancient Greek sculptor (circa 370-330 BC), a sculptor who lived after Phidias who sculpted figures that were more lifelike and natural in form and size.
Hellenistic Art
(3rd - 2nd century BCE) , more realism, more emotion, every day people, Pelopponesian war destroyed images of perfection