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Oldest alveolar bone proper is located

Near the CEJ

Primary cementum is located

Next to Dentin

Lining of alveolus

Alveolar Bone Proper

Cementum and Alveolar bone proper form from

Dental sac/follicle

Alveolar bone proper forms by

Intramembranous Ossification

Components of Cementum

1. Cells (cementoblasts, cementocytes and cementoclasts) 2. Fibrous matrix (Collagen type I fibers) 3. Ground substance

Which component of cementum is more predominant?

Fibrous Matrix

Components of Alveolar bone proper

1. Cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts) 2. Fibrous matrix (Collagen type I fibers) 3. Ground substance

Which component of alveolar bone proper is more predominant?

Fibrous Matrix

Collagen fibers of PDL

Run into bone and cementum at a 90 degree angle, perpendicular to bone and cementum. Type I, some III and oxytalan.

Collagen fibers of Cementum and Bone

Produced by either cementoblasts or osteoblasts, run parallel to DCJ. Type I fibers

Acellular Cementum

The oldest, located in cervical 1/3 of root. The first cementum laid down, thin, can remove with instruments

Acellular Cementum is located next to

Dentin because needs blood supply

Secondary/Cellular Cementum

The newest, located in apical and middle 1/3, second formed. Formed after tooth has reached functional occlusion. Continues to deposit cementum throughout life of tooth

Cellular Cementum can change to

Acellular Cementum because junctional epithelium can move apically so there's no blood supply

Types of cementoenamel relationships

1. Overlap 2. Meet 3. Gap

Overlap relationship

60% of cases, REE breaks down early

Meet relationship

30% of cases. Cementum and enamel meet end to end. Hertwig Sheath broken up at right time

Gap relationship

10% of cases. Hertwig Sheath did not break up. Dentin is exposed and patients experience hypersensitivity

Abnormal features of cementum

1. Cementicles 2. Cemental Spurs 3. Hypercementosis


Calcified bodies of cementum. May be free floating, attached or embedded. NOT seen on x-rays

Cemental Spurs

Found at or near CEJ, similar to enamel pearls. Due to irregular deposition of cementum


Excessive production of cellular cementum, mainly occurs at apex. Usually found in elderly people

Lamina Dura

Term used for alveolar bone proper ONLY when looking at x-rays

Cribiform Plate is also called

Alveolar Bone Proper

Alveolar Bone Proper is

Compact bone, very dense and hard

Cortical Plate

Outermost bone, Compact

Inner cortical plate

Faces the tongue or palate (Lingual)

Outer cortical plate

Faces the lips and cheeks (Facial)

Two layers of Alveolar Bone Proper

1. Bundle Bone 2. Compact Bone

Bundle Bone

Inner layer of alveolar bone proper, located by PDL, contains Sharpey's Fibers

Compact Bone

Outer layer of alveolar bone proper, lies next to spongy bone

Interradicular Septum

Alveolar Bone between roots of one tooth (multirooted teeth)

Interdental Septum

Alveolar Bone between adjacent teeth (AKA interproximal bone)

Alveolar Crest

Located at top of interdental septum

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