Perceiving personal attacks, criticisms, or hostile undertones in communication when none are intended.
The physiological result of sound waves hitting our eardrums. Unlike listening, hearing is a passive process.
A complex process that consists of being mindful, hearing, selecting and organizing information, interpreting communication, responding, and remembering.
listening for information
One of the three goals of listening; focuses on gaining and evaluating ideas, facts, opinions, reasons, and so forth.
listening for pleasure
One of the three goals of listening; motivated by the desire to enjoy rather than to gain information or to support others.
listening to support others
One of the three goals of listening; focuses more on the relationship level of meaning than on the content level of meaning. Aims to understand and respond to others' feelings, thoughts, and perceptions in affirming ways.
Listening only to the content level of meaning and ignoring the relationship level of meaning.
Being fully present in the moment. A concept from Zen Buddhism; the first step of listening and the foundation of all the other steps.
A brief phrase or sound that gently invites another person to elaborate by expressing interest in hearing more.
Continually focusing communication on ourselves instead of on the person who is talking.
A method of clarifying another's meaning by reflecting our interpretations of his or her communication back to him or her.
Symbolizing your interest in what is being said with observable feedback to speakers during the process of interaction; the fifth of the six elements of listening.