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Vocabulary for AP European history chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars.


the 16th century reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in reaction to the protestant reformation

Who the Peace of Augsburg included

it only included the Lutherans, making Lutheranism legal; anabaptists and Calvinists were not included


a style of art marked by heavy and dramatic ornamentation and curved rather than straight lines; especially associated w/ the catholic counter-reformation


ruler or person in a position of power who puts the success and well-being of his or her state above all else; Elizabeth I; opposites: Mary I of England, Oliver Cromwell, Philip II of Spain


french calvinists

fractions of huguenots in France

1/15 of total population; 2/5 of the nobility

Catholic League

organized by Maximilian as a counter to new protestant alliance that formed, for violence against protestants

Queen Margot

sexualized by older brothers (Henri III Charles XI)

Henri Guise

very catholic; organizes

St. Bartholemew's day Massacre

starts by Catherine de Medicis spreading rumors that huguenots are trying to ruin the country; Margot figures out what's happening and protects Henri of Navarre

Edict of Fontainebleau

subjected French protestants to inquisition --> Catholic church's court to punish heresy

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

gave Europe peace for a small amount of time

January Edict

granted Protestants the right to worship publicly outside of towns

Philip's new world money

silver mines in Mexico gave great sums of money to pay off his father's debt; caused the currency to be debased

Holy League

Spain, Venice, Genoa, and the pope formed to keep the Turks in Mediterranean under control

Treaty of Vervins

1598; ended hostilities between France and Spain

Edict of Nantes

Henry IV; gave huguenots: freedom of public worship, the right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, permission to maintain fortified towns (showed continuing distrust between Catholics and protestants)

Henry IV

politique; edict of Nantes, "paris is worth a mass", publicly abandoned protestantism to embrace catholicism which was the larger religion in France

examples of politiques

Elizabeth I, Cardinal Richelieu, Henry IV, William of Orange

Cardinal Richelieu

was a high rank in the catholic church, but still comes to the aid of the Protestants because it will keep the Habsburgs busy

Gustavus Adolphus

swedish king, protestant leader; when HRE starts threatening Lutherans, he comes in to help; military genius --> gunpowder (makes it more bloody), salvo


new technique using guns, pioneered by Gustavus Adolphus; highly trained force would all discharge at once, then move, then discharge again

increased population

more food from the new world, lower death rate --> more people; combination of this and the new money coming in from the new world caused inflation

the Escorial

personal religious retreat of Philip; combination of palace, church, tomb, and monastery; showed he was a patron of the arts

Don Carlos

son of Philip; died in 1568, Philip was suspected of having him executed


Philip inherited the throne of this kingdom in 1580; union strengthened Spain's overseas empire

the Compromise

a national covent in the Netherlands which was a pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition; made under the rebellion of Louis (William of Orange's brother)

William of Orange

part of the council of state that ruled the Netherlands; was originally Catholic, then Lutheran, then Calvinist

Duke of Alba

was who Philip sent to take care of the first rebellion in Netherlands; came w/ 10,000 men, drove many away (combined with the sales tax); publicly executed many protestants; council of Troubles/Blood ruled over the land when he was there

Spanish Fury

Spanish mercenaries ran amok through Antwerp leaving 7,000 dead

Pacification of Ghent

was the union of the provinces in the Netherlands, in response to the Spanish Fury

Union of Brussels

4 provinces originally held out of the pacification of ghent, but they later joined, forming the union of Brussels

Union of Arras

leaders of the southern provinces backed out of the Union of Brussel because of fear of Calvinist extremists, they formed the Union of arras in 1579 and made peace w/ Spain

Union of Utrecht

the northern provinces response to the forming of the Union of Arras

the Apology

William of Orange's speech to the Estates General of Holland denouncing Philip as a heathen tyrant who they do not need to obey, the Union of Hague later gathered and formally declared Philip no longer their leader

French duke of Alençon

most of the northern provinces accepted him as their leader but then later deposed him in 1583 when he attempted to take actual control of them

Twelve Years' Truce

gave the northern provinces virtual independence after they drove out Spanish soldiers

Mary I

married Philip II (symbol of militant Catholicism to English Protestants); under her, parliament reverted to the Catholic religious practice of her father; executed many protestant leaders

Act of Supremacy

repealed all anti-protestant legislation of Mary Tudor and asserted Elizabeth as supreme governor of spiritual and temporal affairs

Act of Uniformity

mandated for every English parish a revised version of the second Book of Common Prayer

39 articles

a revision of Thomas Cranmer's original 42 and the issuance of them made Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England


scottish calvinists and english protestnats who wanted a national church composed of semiautonomous congregations governed by "presbyteries"


extreme puritans who wanted all congregations to be autonomous, a law unto itself

reasons for armada failure

winds unfavorable; english ships were smaller/faster --> maneuverable, harder to hit/see; English had home field advantage; spanish ships were not meant to fight in the water, meant to be an invasion force

importance of the armada's defeat

1588; huge for protestants --> England was protestant; balance of power is shifting from Spain

state of germany during 2nd half of 16th century

ungovernable land of ~360 autonomous, independent secular principalities; each had own sovereignty (given by Peace of Augsburg) --> levied own taxes, coined own money --> made it hard to travel between them

how the 30 years war starts

the defenestration of b/c embassaries b/c they felt that their rights were being taken away from peace of Augsburg (but it really didn't apply to them)

Edict of Restitution

Ferdinand; any place where Lutherans got right to practice, not any more


dominant catholic military leader; mercenaries are needed b/c the HRE is decentralized

the 39 articles

the official statement of the beliefs of the church of england. they established a moderate form of protestantism

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