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50 terms

AP Euro Chapter 12

Vocabulary for AP European history chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars.
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counter-reformation
the 16th century reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in reaction to the protestant reformation
Who the Peace of Augsburg included
it only included the Lutherans, making Lutheranism legal; anabaptists and Calvinists were not included
baroque
a style of art marked by heavy and dramatic ornamentation and curved rather than straight lines; especially associated w/ the catholic counter-reformation
politiques
ruler or person in a position of power who puts the success and well-being of his or her state above all else; Elizabeth I; opposites: Mary I of England, Oliver Cromwell, Philip II of Spain
huguenots
french calvinists
fractions of huguenots in France
1/15 of total population; 2/5 of the nobility
Catholic League
organized by Maximilian as a counter to new protestant alliance that formed, for violence against protestants
Queen Margot
sexualized by older brothers (Henri III Charles XI)
Henri Guise
very catholic; organizes
St. Bartholemew's day Massacre
starts by Catherine de Medicis spreading rumors that huguenots are trying to ruin the country; Margot figures out what's happening and protects Henri of Navarre
Edict of Fontainebleau
subjected French protestants to inquisition --> Catholic church's court to punish heresy
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
gave Europe peace for a small amount of time
January Edict
granted Protestants the right to worship publicly outside of towns
Philip's new world money
silver mines in Mexico gave great sums of money to pay off his father's debt; caused the currency to be debased
Holy League
Spain, Venice, Genoa, and the pope formed to keep the Turks in Mediterranean under control
Treaty of Vervins
1598; ended hostilities between France and Spain
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV; gave huguenots: freedom of public worship, the right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, permission to maintain fortified towns (showed continuing distrust between Catholics and protestants)
Henry IV
politique; edict of Nantes, "paris is worth a mass", publicly abandoned protestantism to embrace catholicism which was the larger religion in France
examples of politiques
Elizabeth I, Cardinal Richelieu, Henry IV, William of Orange
Cardinal Richelieu
was a high rank in the catholic church, but still comes to the aid of the Protestants because it will keep the Habsburgs busy
Gustavus Adolphus
swedish king, protestant leader; when HRE starts threatening Lutherans, he comes in to help; military genius --> gunpowder (makes it more bloody), salvo
salvo
new technique using guns, pioneered by Gustavus Adolphus; highly trained force would all discharge at once, then move, then discharge again
increased population
more food from the new world, lower death rate --> more people; combination of this and the new money coming in from the new world caused inflation
the Escorial
personal religious retreat of Philip; combination of palace, church, tomb, and monastery; showed he was a patron of the arts
Don Carlos
son of Philip; died in 1568, Philip was suspected of having him executed
Portugal
Philip inherited the throne of this kingdom in 1580; union strengthened Spain's overseas empire
the Compromise
a national covent in the Netherlands which was a pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition; made under the rebellion of Louis (William of Orange's brother)
William of Orange
part of the council of state that ruled the Netherlands; was originally Catholic, then Lutheran, then Calvinist
Duke of Alba
was who Philip sent to take care of the first rebellion in Netherlands; came w/ 10,000 men, drove many away (combined with the sales tax); publicly executed many protestants; council of Troubles/Blood ruled over the land when he was there
Spanish Fury
Spanish mercenaries ran amok through Antwerp leaving 7,000 dead
Pacification of Ghent
was the union of the provinces in the Netherlands, in response to the Spanish Fury
Union of Brussels
4 provinces originally held out of the pacification of ghent, but they later joined, forming the union of Brussels
Union of Arras
leaders of the southern provinces backed out of the Union of Brussel because of fear of Calvinist extremists, they formed the Union of arras in 1579 and made peace w/ Spain
Union of Utrecht
the northern provinces response to the forming of the Union of Arras
the Apology
William of Orange's speech to the Estates General of Holland denouncing Philip as a heathen tyrant who they do not need to obey, the Union of Hague later gathered and formally declared Philip no longer their leader
French duke of Alençon
most of the northern provinces accepted him as their leader but then later deposed him in 1583 when he attempted to take actual control of them
Twelve Years' Truce
gave the northern provinces virtual independence after they drove out Spanish soldiers
Mary I
married Philip II (symbol of militant Catholicism to English Protestants); under her, parliament reverted to the Catholic religious practice of her father; executed many protestant leaders
Act of Supremacy
repealed all anti-protestant legislation of Mary Tudor and asserted Elizabeth as supreme governor of spiritual and temporal affairs
Act of Uniformity
mandated for every English parish a revised version of the second Book of Common Prayer
39 articles
a revision of Thomas Cranmer's original 42 and the issuance of them made Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England
presbyterians
scottish calvinists and english protestnats who wanted a national church composed of semiautonomous congregations governed by "presbyteries"
congregationalists
extreme puritans who wanted all congregations to be autonomous, a law unto itself
reasons for armada failure
winds unfavorable; english ships were smaller/faster --> maneuverable, harder to hit/see; English had home field advantage; spanish ships were not meant to fight in the water, meant to be an invasion force
importance of the armada's defeat
1588; huge for protestants --> England was protestant; balance of power is shifting from Spain
state of germany during 2nd half of 16th century
ungovernable land of ~360 autonomous, independent secular principalities; each had own sovereignty (given by Peace of Augsburg) --> levied own taxes, coined own money --> made it hard to travel between them
how the 30 years war starts
the defenestration of b/c embassaries b/c they felt that their rights were being taken away from peace of Augsburg (but it really didn't apply to them)
Edict of Restitution
Ferdinand; any place where Lutherans got right to practice, not any more
Wallenstein
dominant catholic military leader; mercenaries are needed b/c the HRE is decentralized
the 39 articles
the official statement of the beliefs of the church of england. they established a moderate form of protestantism