Minerals and Rocks
Terms in this set (21)
A mineral is a solid that is naturally occurring, inorganic, and has a crystal structure, and definite chemical composition.
The atoms in a crystal are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern called a crystal structure. This organized structure produces smooth and sharp edges on a crystal.
Crystallization is the process by which atoms form a solid with an orderly, repeating pattern. Crystallization can happen in two main ways.
The color of a mineral's powder is called its streak. Streak is observed by scratching the mineral across a tile of unglazed porcelain.
Luster describes the way that a mineral's surface reflects light. Many terms are used to describe luster, some of these are metallic, glassy, earthy, or pearly.
If a mineral breaks along smooth, flat surfaces, it displays cleavage.
A mineral that breaks along rough or irregular surfaces displays fracture.
Deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals that can be produced at a profit are called ores
A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture composed of minerals
The individual particles in a rock are called grains.
Molten rock is called magma when it is inside of earth.
Molten rock that erupts onto earth's surface is called lava.
For rocks, texture refers to grain size and how the grains are arranged.
Rock and mineral fragments that are loose or suspend in water are called sediment .
Lithification is the process through which sediment turns into rock.
Foliation results when uneven pressures cause flat minerals to line up, giving the rock a layered appearance.
The series of processes that continually change one rock type into another is called the rock cycle.
When lava cools and cystallizes on earth's surface, the igneous rock that forms is called extrusive rock.
When magma cools and crystallizes inside Earth, the igneous rock that forms is called intrusive rock.
Uplift is the process that moves large amounts of rock up to earth's surface and to higher elevations.
The process of laying down sediment in a new location is called deposition.
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