In order for one party to maintain a lawsuit against another party, she must have standing Requirement for any party to maintain a lawsuit against another party, necessitating that the party asserting the claim must have suffered an injury in fact and that harm must be direct, concrete, and individualized. to sue. This means that the party asserting the claim: (1) must have suffered an injury in fact; (2) suffered harm that is direct, concrete, and individualized; and (3) articulates what legal redress exists to compensate for the injury. In a business context, most lawsuits involve economic interests and, therefore, most parties in commercial litigation have no trouble meeting the requirements for standing. However, businesses and industries can sometimes be the target of consumer advocacy organizations and other groups that use litigation to advance their group's policy objectives. In Case 4.1, a federal court of appeals applies the rules of standing to a lawsuit filed against several businesses in the same industry. These requests are aimed at producing specific items to help one party discover some important fact in the case. Requests for productionRequests aimed at producing specific items to help one party discover some important fact in the case. are usually very wide in scope so that a request would cover all documents, memoranda, reports, notes, calendars, videotape, audiotape, e-mail, computer hard drives, and so on. In a complex securities or banking fraud case or one where many documents are involved, it is not uncommon for the parties to send a truckload of boxes containing materials that were requested by the other side. During arbitration, an individual arbitrator (or group of arbitrators) conducts a hearing between the parties in the dispute. The hearing is similar to a court setting, but is less formal. Parties seeking arbitration typically apply for an arbitrator through an ADR agency. The largest provider in the United States is the American Arbitration Association (AAA). The AAA receives the application and first appoints a tribunal administrator who coordinates the case and prepares the parties by informing them of procedures and rules of arbitration. Next, an arbitrator who is mutually agreed upon by the parties is appointed to the case. The arbitrator functions much like a judge would in a standard trial, and in some states even has the power of subpoena (the ability to demand certain documents or witnesses). For arbitration cases, although an attorney is not required, parties in a business dispute often opt to be represented by counsel. An arbitration hearing resembles a trial in that there are opening statements, both parties present limited evidence and calls a predetermined number of witnesses, each party has the right of cross-examination, and both parties make closing arguments. At the beginning of the arbitration both parties agree to either binding or nonbinding arbitration. If binding, the arbitrator's decision is final unless both parties agree to have the case reopened.