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PSY376 Exam 1
Terms in this set (116)
Lifespan Human Development
The ways in which people grow, change, and stay the same throughout their lives, from conception to death.
Refers to body maturation and growth, including body size, proportion, appearance, health, and perceptual abilities.
Refers to maturation of the thought processes and the tools that we use to obtain knowledge, become aware of the world around us, and solve problems.
Includes changes in personality, emotions, views of oneself, social skills, and interpersonal relationships with family and friends.
Malleable or changeable.
Where and when a person develops.
Physical and social environment.
Contextual influences are tied to particular historical eras and explain why a generation of people born at the same time.
Characterized by slow and gradual change.
Characterized by abrupt change.
Is development caused by nature or nurture?
A way of organizing a set of observations or facts into a comprehensive explanation of how something works.
Proposed explanations for a given phenomenon, that can be tested by research.
Describe development and behavior as a result of the interplay of inner drives, memories, and conflicts of which we are unaware and cannot control.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
1. Oral (0-18 months)
2. Anal (18 months-3 years)
3. Phallic (3-6 years)
4. Latency (6 years-puberty)
5. Genital (puberty-adulthood)
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1 year)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (1-3 years)
3. Initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years)
4. Industry vs. inferiority (6-12 years)
5. Identity vs. role confusion (puberty-early adulthood)
6. Intimacy vs. isolation (Early adulthood)
7. Generativity vs. stagnation (Middle adulthood)
8. Integrity vs. despair (Late adulthood)
Examine only behavior that can be observed and believe that all behavior is influenced by the physical and social environment.
A form of learning in which the person or animal comes to associate environmental stimuli with physiological responses.(pavlov's dogs)
Behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences.
People learn by watching others.
Individuals and the environment interact and influence each other.
More likely to recur.
Less likely to recur.
Social Learning Theory
People actively process information, they think and they feel emotion, and their thoughts and feelings influence their behavior.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor 0-2 years
2. Preoperations 2-6 years
3. Concrete Operations 7-11 years
4. Formal Operations 12-adulthood
Information Processing Theory
A perspective that views thinking as information processing and posits that the mind works in ways similar to a computer because information enters, is manipulated, stored, recalled, and sued to solve problems.
How culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through social interaction.
Bioecological Systems Theory
Development is a result of the ongoing interactions among biological, cognitive, and psychological changes within the person and his or her changing context.
Includes immediate physical and social environment surrounding the person, such as family, peers, and school.
Experiences in the home influence those at school.
When the individual is not a participant, but it effects them(parent's work setting, influences parents mood, influences child)
includes cultural values, legal and political practices, and other elements of the society at large.
As people grow and change, they take on and let go of various roles.
Evolutionary Development Theory
Theory that applies principles of evolution and scientific knowledge about the interactive influence of genetic and environmental mechanisms to understand the changes people undergo throughout their lifetime.
Is the scientific study of the evolutionary basis of behavior and its survival value.
Fluid filled sphere with cells forming a protective circle around an inner cluster of cells.
lil baby unborn like real small
When the blastocyst burrows into the wall of the uterus.
bag of juice that surrounds baby in the womb.
Becomes skin, nails, hair, teeth, sensory organs, and the nervous system.
Becomes digestive system, liver, lungs, pancreas, salivary glands, and respiratory system.
Becomes muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and internal organs.
Develops into brain and spinal cord.
Develops into male or female genitals.
Age of Viability
Age at which advanced medical care permits a preterm newborn to survive outside the womb. Begins at 22 weeks.
An agent that causes damage to prenatal development.
The field that attempts to find the causes of birth defects so that they may be avoided.
Low Birth Weight
Infants born at a low weight decreases likelihood of survival.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A cluster of defects appearing after heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol that is detected in 2-7 infants per 1,000.
Birth through abdominal wall.
Quick and easy overall assessment of newborns immediate health.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
Most common neurobehavioral assessment administered to newborns, especially those who are at risk.
Prematurely born baby.
Principle that growth proceeds from the head downward.
Principle that growth and development proceed from the center of the body outward.
Expectations for typical gains and variations in height and weight based on chronological age.
The creation of new neurons begins in the embryo's neural tube.
Provide physical structure for neurons to travel on.
Outer layer of the brain.
Connections between neurons.
Loss of unused neural connections.
Glial cells produce and coat axons with a fatty substance called myelin.
Experience-Expectant Brian Development
When the brain depends on experiencing certain basic events and stimuli at key points in time in order to develop normally.
Experience-Dependent Brain Development
Growth that occurs in response to learning experiences.
When repeated exposure to a stimulus results in the gradual decline in the intensity, frequency, or duration of a response.
Process of combining information from more than one sensory system.
Gross Motor Development
The ability to control the large movements of the body.
Fine Motor Development
The ability to control small movements of the body such as fingers grasping.
Dynamic Systems Theory
How separate abilities are blended together to provide more complex and effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment.
Integrating a new experience into a preexisting schema.
Adapting or modifying the schema in light of new information.
Thinking about an object using mental pictures.
The repetition of an action and its response 1-4 months.
Primary Circular Reactions
Repeating actions involving parts of the body that produce pleasurable or interesting results. 1-4 months.
Secondary Circular Reaction
Repetitions of actions that trigger responses in the external environment. 4-8 months.
The understanding that objects continue to exist outside of sensory awareness (when no longer visible). 8-12 months.
Tertiary Circular Reactions
Purposeful trial and error exploration to search for new discoveries. 12-18 months.
Imitating actions of an absent model.
Core Knowledge Perspective
Explains that infants are born with several innate knowledge systems or core domains of thought that enable early rapid learning and adaptation.
First step in getting information into the mind.
"short-term memory" holds and processes information.
Long Term Memory
Unlimited store that holds information indefinitely.
Control processor that directs the flow of information and regulates cognitive activities such as attention, action, and problem solving.
Grouping different stimuli from a common class.
Process of quickly acquiring and retaining a word after hearing it applied a few times.
A period of rapid vocab learning.
Trust vs. Mistrust
If infant is given love and care and trust parents when young, they will grow to trust the world vice versa.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Concerned with establishing a sense of autonomy, or the feeling that one can make choices and direct oneself.
Biologically predetermined emotions.
In response to seeing familiar people.
Infants of mothers who experience depression post birth.
Infants way of demonstrating that they understand that others experience their own emotions and thoughts.
Emotional Display Rules
Societal rules that specify the circumstances under which various emotions should or should not be expressed.
A fear of unfamiliar people.
A persons character or personality.
Positive mood, even-tempered, open, adaptable.
Active, irritable, irregular biological rhythms.
Slow To Warm Up
Inactive, moody, slow to adapt to new situations and people.
Goodness of Fit
Child's temperament and environment around him.
Ethological Theory of Attachment
A natural attachment bond between infants and caregivers.
Person who is a foundation to return to when frightened.
Internal Working Model
A set of expectations of ones worthiness of love and availability of attachment figures during times of distress.
Ones sense of self.
Ainsworth's Strange Situation Procedure
Mother, child, and stranger in a room. Mother leaves, baby becomes distressed.
Infants who are securely attached to their mother, display anxiety and protest.
Child is minimally interested in the mother, and busily explores the room.
Infant remains preoccupied with mother throughout procedure , but infant holds a grudge toward mother.
Set of infants who show inconsistent, contradictory behaviors.
Ability to recognize or identify the self.
Self description based on broad categories such as gender, age, and physical characteristics.
Ages In Human Development
Infancy to toddlerhood (birth-2 years)
Early childhood (2-6 years)
Middle childhood (6-11 years)
Adolescence (11-18 years)
Early adulthood (18-40)
Middle adulthood (40-65 years)
Late adulthood (65-beyond)
Prenatal Development Stages
1. Germinal Stage (24-36 hours after conception)
2. Embryonic Stage (22 weeks after conception)
3. Fetal Stage (9 weeks-birth)