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WH test #1
Terms in this set (94)
what was the dual inheritance theory?
a theory suggesting the relationship between genetics and cultural practices
what is a meme?
unit of cultural info passed down through generations
coalitionary conflict (killing) is associated with which theory of human violence?
man the hunter
is human violence endemic or episodic, and what does that mean?
episodic, humans only use violence at specific points in history
which of these is NOT associated with "man the hunted"?
which ancient city that we discussed featured walls that were increasingly thickened every time they were destroyed?
what is Sedentary Agriculturalism?
settling in one, usually very fertile place and farming for surpluses
which more advanced group of humans had a larger neocortex and brought about the second wave of migration from Africa?
what is recursion?
the ability to repeat conversations back to someone else
what is the atlatl?
weapon accessory to improve the effectiveness of the spear
the timeline of development is much different between these areas:
europe and near east
what is "fission" in terms of early human groups
splitting of the group
rank the following in chronological order: I-Paleolithic Period, II-Neolithic Period, III- Mesolithic Period
what important geographical feature allowed people to survive in the Arid Zone?
what is irrigation?
redirecting water from rivers to supply water to crops
which of these is a result of agriculture: surpluses, specialization of labor, social stratification, all of the above?
all of the above
which of these is not a characteristic of civilization: cities, monumental building, political system, short-range trade
the mesopotamian writing system i known as ______ and was used for ____________
what were the centers of power in ancient mesopotamian cities? (select all that apply): palace, market place, temple, bath
who was the "big man" in mesopotamian society?
what was the method for controlling distant city states in mesopotamia?
sending emissaries to demand tribute for the threat of war
who was the founder of the Akkadian Empire?
mesopotamian religion was _____, and they worshiped (a) ____ god(s) in _________
polytheistic, anthropomorphic, ziggurats
mesopotaman society was a ______ society and women had ______ rights
this group of people came from the Zargos Mountains and eventually took control of all of the souther mesopotamia after the hottie conquest of the babylonian empire
this practice was used by many ancient civilizations to predict the future
the relatively calm and predictable floods of the ______ contributed to the _____ belief in cosmic order and a benevolent universe
nile river, egyptians
______ was the most powerful female ruler in egyptian history and ruled as regent for her young son, thomas III
which of these were the early regions of power in egypt: petty states, city states, upper egypt, lower egypt?
rank the following in chronological order: I first intermediate period, II old kingdom, III new kingdom, IV middle kingdom, V second intermediate period
II, I, IV, V, III
who was the egyptian ruler and direct link to the gods?
what was the purpose of mummification?
preserve the body for the journey to afterlife
ancient egyptians made advance in all of the following EXCEPT: anatomy and medicine, mathematics, writing systems, astronomy?
upper egypt was _______ on the nile river, which was to the _______
which lesser god was merged with Ra, the sun god of egypt by pharaoh amenemhet to form the king of the gods?
which of these was the very first chinese dynasty?
the shang chinese used these in religious rituals such as divination
the shang ruler controlled vassals by:
traveling the kingdom and demanding tribute
objects made from this metal were status symbols in shang china?
true or false: the first chariots appeared in settled agrarian society
what was a major disadvantage of early chariots
very heavy for animals to pull
which group of people introduced the chariot to egypt?
shang china took part in _____ as a display of power
which indus settlement that acted as a trade gateway with mesopotamia?
the indus river valley is most known for its:
mysteriously indecipherable writing
which of these is not a theory on why the indus civilization disappeared?
mass exodus as a result of divination
which of these was NOT a major region of power in the ancient world and did NOT influence emerging civilizations elsewhere?
the _____ civilization in the aegean sea was peaceful and depicted the natural world in their frescoes
the minoans and mycenaeans mainly used _____ to propel their ships and often sailed ______
oars, close to shore
migrant groups often do this when arriving in new land
assimilate into the new society
what set the neo-assyrian and persian empires apart from the other civilizations we've studied
which of these is NOT true about the neo-assyrian religious beliefs: Ahura Mazda was the chief diety, Gods chose the king to lead the people, supervised by the king, gods were consulted through divination
Ahura Mazda was the chief diety
this neo-assyrian ruler created the professional military of the assyrians
which of these military strategies did the neoassyrians employ? (select all that apply): few specialties for soldiers, combined arms, siege tactics, eunuch slave soldiers
combined arms, siege tactics
what was the main tactic used by the neo-assyrian in their rule?
rule through terror
the net-assyrians used propaganda for: gaining support for the king, gaining support for military companies, promising harsh punishment for those who disobeyed, all of the above
all of the above
currency _______ used in the neo-assyrian empire, and _____ was used as the medium for trade
was not, silver
at the height of its power under darius I, this empire was the largest the world had ever seen
true or false: human progress is indirectional
which of these was NOT a social class in the persian empire: merchants, priests, peasants, warriors?
which persian leader united the tribes and overthrew the medes people?
cyrus the great
persian territory was divided into _________, and was overseen by a ________
what was important about the relationship between the persians and the trained scribes and officials of the ancient cultures they conquered?
the persians employed the the trained abilities of these people
a standing army is important for which of the following reasons: internal control, external control, conquering ability, ruling through terror?
_______ was the ceremonial capital of the persian empire, was built as a display of power, and depicts the multi-ethnic nature of the mpire
what was true of zoroastrianism? (select all that apply): monotheistic, cosmic struggle between good and evil, aura mazda was evil demon, the gathas were the hyms of this religion
monotheistic, cosmic struggle between good and evil, the gathas were the hyms of this religion
many ancient chinese rulers justified their rule with which of the following: mandate of heaven, divination, communication with ancestors, military conquest?
mandate of heaven
zhou china was governed by which of the following systems: strict monarchy with no sharing of power, feudal system with ruler and his vassals, loose confederation of vassals, dividing the rule like in the persian satrapies
feudal system with ruler and his vassals
Hominid species that appeared 3 million years ago and, unlike other animals, walked on two legs. Their brain capacity was a little less than one-third of a modern human's or about the size of the brain capacity of today's African apes. Although not humans, they carried the genetic and biological material out of which modern humans would later emerge.
Humanlike beings who walked erect and preceded modern humans
Species that emerged about 1.5 million years ago and had a large brain and walked truly upright; means "standing man."
Scientific term for "skillful man." Toolmaking ability truly made Homo habilis the forerunners, though very distant, of modern humans
The first humans; they emerged in a small region of Africa about 200,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa about 100,000 years ago. They had bigger brains and greater dexterity than previous hominid species, whom they eventually eclipsed
Herding and breeding of sheep and goats or other animals as a primary means of subsistence
what ancient civilization brought forth the worlds first writing system?
what is the worlds first complex society?
what two rivers does mesopotamia lie between?
tigris and euphrates
who was he head of a mesopotamian family?
the oldest male
what were the duties of the wife of a mesopotamian family?
have and raise the children (preferably male children)
what were the most powerful and influential mesopotamian city states?
Sumerian city state and Akkadian territorial state
who was the first person to ally a large amount of mesopotamian city states by creating a territorial state?
Sargon the Great
what is a territorial state?
a political organization that holds power over a large land mass (bigger than city-states)
what was the primary purpose of the egyptian pharaoh?
ensure that the forces of nature continue without interruption
what three groups did the egyptians believe to have inhabited their world?
kings, gods, and everyone else
The Nile River was characterized by what?
predictable floods that could be dammed for rich silt that helped agriculture
The first territorial state was established
in akkad by sargon the great
Sumerians religion included ________ that were considered _________ to the gods
In the Americas around 3500 BCE, the largest population center was in:
the valley of tehuacan in Mexico
In the steppe lands of Inner Mongolia:
small communities turned primarily to animal breeding and hurding
The Aegean world was characterized by
a warrior ethos, scattered settlements separated by natural obstacles, trade with people, preferred conquest over commerce
The trait that gave early hominids a significant advantage for survival was:
The last part of Afro-Eurasia to be occupied by Homo erectus was:
The Egyptian deity whom the Middle Kingdom rulers elevated to prominence as a king of the gods was:
Transhumant refers to:
herders who move their hearts seasonally between microenviroments
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