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270 terms

ESC1000L Final Lab Exam

STUDY
PLAY
melting
Substance solid transforms to liquid. A cooling process
cooling process
Is melting a heating or cooling process?
freezing
liquid transforms to solid. A heating process.
heating process
Is freezing a heating or cooling process?
evaporation
Liquid transforms to vapour. A cooling process
condensation
Vapour transforms to liquid. A heating process.
sublimation
A solid transforms to a gas, skipping the liquid phase. A cooling process.
deposition
A gas transforms to a solid. A heating process.
higher
When temperature is higher, the amount of water vapor air can hold is _______
lower
When temperature is lower, the amount of water vapor air can hold is _______.
unsaturated
When a given parcel of air is holding less water than it can actually hold it is___________.
saturated
When a given parcel of air is holding all the water vapor it can hold, it is _________.
mixing ratio
specific humidity
specific humidity
Ratio of the amount of water vapour in air by weight, compared to the mass of air it is in. Not affected by temperature.
absolute humidity
Ratio of the amount of water vapour in air by volume, compared to the volume of air it is in. Not affected by temperature.
relative humidity
Ratio of the amount of water vapour in air compared to the amount needed to saturate the air at the same temperature. Given as a percentage. Is strongly affected by temperature.
relative humidity
how much water the air is holding relative to the amount is can potentially hold, its capacity. Is strongly affected by temperature.
drops
What happens to relative humidity when temperature increases?
decreases
What happens to the capacity of air to hold water vapour when temperature decreases?
increases
What happens to relative humidity when the water vapour content of the air stays the same, but the temperature drops?
dew point
The temperature that a parcel of unsaturated air would have to fall to, in order to become saturated. Given as a temperature.
1 June to 30 November
When is the hurricane season?
tropical cyclone
1. low pressure system 2. a rotating air movement due to coriolis effect 3. winds of > 74 mph (Nthern Hem: counter clockwise) Also called hurricane, typhoon.
tropical depression
tropical cyclone with winds < 38 mph
tropical storm
tropical cyclone with winds 38 to 74 mph
5-20 degrees
Global zone where tropical storms form, but not south Atlantic or eastern Pacific.
doldrums
Why tropical storms can't cross the equator.
Saffir-Simpson
Scale used to rank tropical storms, based on wind speed.
hurricane
Storm that causes wind damage, inland flooding and storm surge.
wind damage
Damage caused by hurricanes: 1. _____, 2. storm surge, 3. inland flooding
storm surge
Damage caused by hurricanes: 1. wind damage, 2. _____, 3. inland flooding
inland flooding
Damage caused by hurricanes: 1. wind damage, 2. storm surge, 3. _____
right
direction winds are deflected due to coriolis effect in the northern hemisphere
left
direction winds are deflected due to coriolis effect in the southern hemisphere.
stronger
As wind speed increases, the deflection of wind due to coriolis effect is______.
equator
Zone of the earth where deflection of wind due to the coriolis effect is weakest.
friction
Factor that affects wind as it moves over different surfaces.
slows
Friction _____ wind speed over forested areas compared with open ocean.
low
Which air pressure can end up forming cyclones?
convergence
When winds come together and are forced to go up, spinning counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere
cyclone
weather feature formed by low pressure and air converging and rising, spinning counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
high
_____air pressure can end up forming anticyclones
divergence
When air flows down and there is an outflow of air, moving apart in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere.
anticyclone
weather feature formed by high pressure and air dropping and diverging and spinning clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
global circulation
Doldrums at the equator, Horse Latitudes at 30 degrees,
equatorial low
Global zone of moist warm air rising at the equator, also called the Doldrums.
mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid (at normal earth temperatures) with a repeating crystalline structure and definite chemical composition.
CaCO3
What is the chemical formula of the mineral that is an exception to the standard definition of a mineral because it is made by organisms?
calcium carbonate
chemical name of calcite
calcite
The mineral name of CaCO3
rock
Any naturally occurring solid mass composed of one or more minerals
feldspars
The most common group of silicates in the earth's surface
quartz
The second most common silicate in the earth's surface
non-silicates
Term for rocks that do not contain silicon and oxygen.
luster
Term for the quality or appearance of light reflected from the surface of a rock.
metallic and non metallic
The two major categories of luster used in rock identification.
vitreous
Term for the type of luster that is shiny like glass or colored glass.
light and dark
The two major categories of color used in rock identification.
cleavage
Term for the shape of the broken crystals in a rock.
malleability
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can be permanently deformed
refraction
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can reflect light internally in a way that produces two images.
conchoidal fracture
Term for the cleavage that broken glass has.
streak
The color of a mineral in powdered form
2.5
Hardness score of fingernail on Moh's hardness scale
3.5
Hardness score of a penny on Moh's hardness scale
5.5
Hardness score of glass on Moh's hardness scale
6.5
Hardness score of a streak plate on Moh's harness scale.
specific gravity
How heavy a sample is compared to the mass of an equal volume of water
texture and composition
Characteristics used to classify igneous rocks.
vesicles
Term for the bubbles in igneous rocks produced by dissolved gases.
coarse grained
Texture of intrusive rocks with visible crystals.
porphyritic
Term for the texture of igneous rocks with visible crystals in a fine-grained matrix.
glassy
Term for the texture of rocks with no crystals, but may have vesicles.
dark
Color of silicates that are relatively low in silica
light
Color of silicates that are relatively high in silica.
basaltic or mafic
Terms for igneous rocks that are high in dark silicates (45-85%)
granitic or felsic
Terms for igneous rocks that are low in dark silicates (0-25%)
andesitic or intermediate
Terms for igneous rocks that have moderate amounts of dark silicates (25-45%)
ultramafic
Term for igneous rocks that are very high in dark silicates (>85%)
basalt
A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with fine grained texture.
gabbro
A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with coarse-grained texture.
diorite
A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.
andesite
A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.
granite
A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.
rhyolite
A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.
sedimentary
Category of rock that forms from the lithification of sediments or dissolved substances from preexisting rocks.
chemical and detrital
Two main categories of sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)
particle or grain size
Characteristics used to classify detrital sedimentary rocks.
grain size
Term for the average size of the particles that make up a sedimentary rock.
heat and pressure
Two processes that form metamorphic rocks (in alphabetical order).
around magma bodies and mountain formations
Two places where metamorphic rocks form.
texture, grain size and composition
Three characteristics used to classify metamorphic rocks.
foliated
Term to describe metamorphic rocks that have realigned crystals, which give the rock a layered or banded appearance.
non-foliated
Term to describe metamorphic rocks with crystals that do NOT form layers or bands, usually where a rock is formed of a single mineral. e.g.marble
slate
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, very fine texture, parent rock is shale
phyllite
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, fine grained texture, looks like shiny, often wavy, parent rock is slate.
schist
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, looks scaly or flaky, parent rock is phyllite.
gneiss
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, has light and dark bands, wide range of parent rocks.
marble
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, composed of calcite.
marble
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rock is limestone or chalk
quartzite
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, and medium to coarse-grained, composed of quartz
quartzite
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rockis sandstone
anthracite
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rock is coal.
conglomerate
A rock: sedimentary, rounded coarse-grained texture.
breccia
A rock: sedimentary, angular coarse-grained texture.
sandstone
A rock: sedimentary, medium-grained texture.
siltstone
A rock: sedimentary, fine-grained texture.
shale
A rock: sedimentary, very fine-grained texture.
crystalline limestone and travertine
A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of calcite with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.
coquina
A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with visible and loosely cemented shells and shell fragments.
fossiliferous limestone
A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with various size shells cemented with calcite cement.
chalk
A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with microscopic shells and clay.
chert and flint
A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of quartz with very fine crystalline texture.
rock gypsum
A rock: sedimentary, composed of gypsum with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.
rock salt
A rock: sedimentary, composed of halite with a find to coarse crystalline structure.
CaSO4
Chemical formula for gypsum.
CaCO3
Chemical formula for calcite.
SiO2
Chemical formula for quartz.
NaCl
Chemical formula for halite.
bituminous coal
A rock: sedimentary, composed of compressed and lithified plant matter.
texture, grain size and composition
Three characteristics used to classify metamorphic rocks.
cementation and compression
Two processes that form sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)
chemical and detrital
Two main categories of sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)
east-west
In the township and range location system, direction in which the range number advances.
north-south
In the township and range location system, directions in which the township number advances.
north east
From which corner of the map does the section numbering start in the township and range location system?
640
How many acres in one square mile?
4, NE, NW, SE, SW
Into how many parts is a section broken up, in the town and range location system, and what are their labels (alphabetical order)?
meandering channel
The stream that bends and turns, with erosional and depositional features
point bar
Depositional feature on the inside of a meander's curve
cut bank
Erosional feature on the outside of a meander's curve
oxbow lake
Cut off section of a meander
floodplain
Flat land created by a meandering stream
levee
Higher bank of land running parallel beside a stream
surface wave and body wave
Two basic kinds of waves produced by earthquakes.
primary and secondary waves
Two types of body waves produced by earthquakes
body
Seismic wave that travels through the earth
primary
Seismic body waves that can travel through solids and liquids
secondary
Seismic body waves that can travel only through solids
primary
Type of seismic body wave that is a compression wave
secondary
Type of seismic body wave that is a shear wave
primary
Type of seismic body wave that travels fast (twice as fast as the other type of body wave)
S waves don't go through liquids
Six reasons we know the composition and consistency of the core: 1) speed of seismic waves through dense material; 2) bending of seismic waves through material of different composition; 3)_______; 4) meteorite composition; 5) earth's magnetic field; 6) calculations based on size, pressure and specific gravity.
secondary
Type of seismic body wave that travels slowly.
vibrations
Damage due to earthquakes is due to:_____, liquefaction, tsunamis
liquefaction
Damage due to earthquakes is due to: vibrations, _____, tsunamis
tsunamis
Damage due to earthquakes is due to: vibrations, liquefaction, _____
core
Layer of the earth consisting of iron and nickel
mantle
Layer of the earth consisting of rigid, to plastic to molten silicate rock
silicates
Composition of the mantle
crust
Layer of earth consisting of rigid silicate rock
continental crust
Layer of the earth consisting primarily of rigid granite rock and thickness of 25-40 miles
25 to 40 miles
Thickness of continental crust
2.7
Specific gravity of continental crust
oceanic crust
Layer of the earth consisting primarily of rigid basalt rock of basalt and thickness of 5 miles
mostly basalt
Composition of oceanic crust
mostly granite
Composition of continental crust
5 miles
Thickness of oceanic crust
3
specific gravity of oceanic crust
lithosphere
Layer of the earth consisting of rigid rock of the crust and upper upper mantle
asthenosphere
Layer of the earth consisting of the plastic layer of the upper mantle
3.3
Specific gravity of the mantle
1800 miles
depth to which the mantle extends.
2200 miles
Radius of the core
11
specific gravity of the core.
pressure
Cause of the inner core being solid.
fit of coastlines
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) ______; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence.
similarities in fossils from different areas
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) ______; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence.
similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) ______; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence.
Paleoclimatic evidence
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) ______.
dating rocks from deep-sea drilling
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) ______; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) measurement my satellite and radio telescope.
volcanic hotspots like Hawaii
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) ______; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) measurement my satellite and radio telescope.
paleomagnetism
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) ______; 4) measurement my satellite and radio telescope.
measurement my satellite and radio telescope
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) ______.
divergent boundary
Three types of plate boundaries: 1) _____; 2) convergent boundary; 3) transform boundary
convergent boundary
Three types of plate boundaries: 1) divergent boundary; 2) _____; 3) transform boundary
transform boundary
Three types of plate boundaries: 1) divergent boundary; 2) convergent boundary; 3) _____
rising mantle plumes
What causes a divergent boundary?
Mid Atlantic ridge
Example of a divergent boundary
continental-oceanic
Which type of plate collision creates a subduction zone and volcanic arc?
subduction zone and volcanic arc
What does a collision of continental and oceanic plates create?
subduction zone
Feature created when an oceanic plate descends into the asthenosphere
volcanic arc
Linear group of volcanoes that form due to subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental plate
Andes and Cascades
Two examples of an oceanic and continental plate colliding (alphabetical order)
oceanic-oceanic
Which type of plate collision creates a subduction zone and volcanic island arc?
folded mountains
What does a collision of two continental plates create?
volcanic island arc
Linear group of volcanoes that form due to subduction of an oceanic plate under another oceanic plate
Aleutian Islands, Indonesia, Japan
Three examples of volcanic island arcs (alphabetical order)
continental-continental
Which type of plate collision creates folded mountains?
Himalaya Mountains
Example of continental-continental plate collision
no subduction zone
Why are there no volcanoes in a continental-continental plate collision?
San Andreas Fault
Example of a transform boundary
transform boundary
Type of continental boundary where the fault that moves laterally.
reverse fault
Compressional fault, with the hanging wall block moving up relative to the footwall.
thrust fault
Type of reverse fault, where the fault line is at a very low angle and the hanging wall slides over the footwall.
strike-slip fault
Type of fault where there is lateral movement rather than vertical movement.
horst and graben fault
Type of fault where a large block is bound by parallel normal faults on either side.
graben
The depressed block of land bordered by two parallel normal faults.
horst
The elevated blocks of land that border two parallel normal faults.
aa
basaltic lava flow that looks very rough with sharp points and blocky
ash
Term for very fine pyroclastic materials.
basalt
Oceanic-type magma is typically runnier than continental-type magma because it is composed of more _______
batholith
Intrusion that is very large scale, massive, and discordant.
blocks
Term for large pyroclastic material (> about 2.5 inches).
cinders
Term for pyroclastic material up to about 2.5 inches.
concordant plutons
Igneous intrusions that go between other layers of rock.
Crater Lake, Oregon
Example of a caldera.
pyroclastic flows
Four sources of volcanic damage: hot gases, pyroclastics,_______, lava flows.
Devil's Tower, Wyoming
Example of a volcanic neck.
dikes
Intrusions that are tabular and discordant.
discordant plutons
Igneous intrusions that cut across other layers of rock.
dust
Term for fine pyroclastic materials.
explosive eruption
Volcanic event that can be created when magma is very thick, and clog up a volcano, stopping gases from erupting, leading to a buildup of pressure.
fire rock
Another term for pyroclastic.
fissure eruption
Lava flows from long cracks, often on the flanks of volcanoes.
pyroclastics
Solid materials that are thrown into the air (or are thrown up liquid) and come down solid.
hot gases
Four sources of volcanic damage: ______, lava flows, pyroclastics, pyroclastic flows.
laccolith
Intrusion that is larger scale, massive (lense-shaped) and concordant.
lahar
Mudflow of volcanic ash.
lapilli
Term for pea-sized pyroclastic gravel.
lava flows
Four sources of volcanic damage: ______, pyroclastic flows, hot gases, pyroclastics.
massive intrusions
Plutons that are not flat in form.
Mount St. Helens
Example of a stratovolcano.
Mt Kilauea, Hawaii
Example of a shield volcano.
pahoehoe
basaltic lava flow that looks smooth and rope-like
parasitic cones
Small vents that develop on the sides of a volcano away from the main vent, taking magma from the main vent.
plutons
Igneous intrusions formed when magma melts or pushes its way into surrounding rocks.
rhyolitic
______magma usually has higher viscosity and does not flow as easily.
sills
Intrusions that are tabular and concordant.
Sunset Crater, Arizona
Example of a cinder volcano.
tabular intrusions
Plutons that are flat in form.
pyroclastics
Four sources of volcanic damage: lava flows, ______, hot gases, pyroclastic flows.
volcanic arc
Mountain range of volcanoes that is made by subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental plate.
law of superposition
Key principles in relative dating: __________; principle of original horizontality, principle of cross cutting relations, unconformities, fossil succession
principle of original horizontality
Key principles in relative dating: law of superposition; __________, principle of cross cutting relations, unconformities, fossil succession
principle of cross cutting relations
Key principles in relative dating: law of superposition; principle of original horizontality, principle of inclusions, __________, unconformities, fossil succession
fossil succession
Key principles in relative dating: law of superposition; principle of original horizontality, principle of cross cutting relations, principle of inclusions, unconformities, __________
unconformities
Key principles in relative dating: law of superposition; principle of original horizontality, principle of cross cutting relations, principle of inclusions, __________, fossil succession
angular unconformity
Three types of unconformaties: __________, disconformity, nonconformity
disconformity
Three types of unconformaties: nonconformity, __________, angular unconformity
nonconformity
Three types of unconformaties: disconformity, __________, angular unconformity
superposition
Law which states that in undeformed sedimentary strata, the oldest rocks will be on the bottom and youngest will be on the top.
original horizontality
Principle that sediments are generally deposited in horizontal layers, and those that are not have gone through some sort of deformation.
cross cutting relations
Principle which states that faults and intrusions are younger than the rocks that they are found in.
inclusions
Principle which states that if a mass of rock contains fragments of an adjacent rock body, the mass containing the inclusions must be younger.
unconformity
Break in the rock record, created by periods of non-deposition or erosion
disconformity
Unconformity where layers of strata are parallel, but they are separated by a period of non-deposition or erosion.
angular unconformity
Unconformity where tilted or folded strata are overlain by horizontal strata.
non-conformity
unconformity where sedimentary rocks are on top of igneous or metamorphic rocks.
index fossils
Methods of relative dating: correlating geologic columns and __________
James Usher
Geologist who first attempted to explain how landscapes form and developed the concept of catastrophism.
catastrophism
Theory which proposed that Earth's various landscapes had been created by a series of fast-acting catastrophic events
James Hutton
Geologist who developed the principle of Uniformitarianism, considered the father of modern geology.
uniformitarianism
Principle that the present is the key to the past, and that by understanding modern processes, we can also understand ancient ones.
petrification
Process whereby tiny voids in bones and part of the organism are filled by mineral deposits
replacement
Process whereby solid parts of an organism are dissolved away and replaced by mineral deposits.
casts and molds
Process whereby a structure is completely dissolved away and the void left behind is filled with mineral deposits at a later time.
gastroliths
fossils of stomach stones
coprolites
fossils of poo.
540 million
Number of years ago that the Phanerozoic geological era began.
Phanerozoic
The geological eon in which there is an explosion of fossils.
shortens
What happens to wave length when the wave base drags on the sea floor?
increases
What happens to the wave height when the wave base drags on the sea floor?
beach drift
Type of erosion where sediment moves in a zig zag movement along a beach caused by waves hitting the beach at an oblique angle.
longshore current
A nearshore current that flows parallel to the beach and moves sediment down the beach.
tombolo
Sand body that connects an island or sea stack to the shore.
spit
Elongated sand body that forms in front of a bay or harbor due to beach drift or longshore currents.
baymouth bar
Spit that eventually closes off a bay or harbor.
breakwater
Human made wall built in the water parallel to shore to block incoming waves.
sea wall
Human made wall built on land parallel to the shore that is used to stop beach erosion.