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106 terms

Chapters 5 - 7

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Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of
mosmaiorum
The myth of the Rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasing the
corruption of Etruscan morals and government
The monastic way of life in the west was influenced greatly by the establishment of a set of rules written by
Benedict
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established when business men who did not become senators wanted
privileges
During the early Roman Republic, Rome expanded
slowly and extended the Latin right to many of the cities it conquered
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including
hills that increase the defensibility of the city
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy, Etruscans
skilled metal worker and artists, lived there
The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because they were
continually forced to defend their own conquests against invaders
One consequence of Rome's conquests was the increased role in society played by
slaves
The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that
virtue leads to happiness, and peace of mind is the highest goal
The Rape of Lucretia explained the end of the
Roman monoarchy and the founding of the Republic
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 BCE, represent the
codification of existing laws for all to see and obey
The Roman's man primary duty was
honor his ancestors
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy but the Roman constitution essentially ensured
oligarchic rule
According to the patriapotestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father had absolute power over
his family, up to and including the power of life and death
One important difference between Roman religion and Greek religion was the Roman view of the
integration of religion with Roman politics serving a pantheon that functioned more like family gods of the Roman state
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a Third Punic War was provoked by
war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed
Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because Rome
connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was between the
wealthiest (2%) and the the rest (98%) of the people
The Augustan system of government is known as the early empire or Principate because
Octavian ruled as first citizen
Prior to Julius Caesar's appointment as "Dictator for Life" only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without traditional 6 month term, and he was
Sulla
Pax Romana refers to the
long period in which there were no major wars within the Roman Empire
Among the titles Augustus had been awarded; _______ was not among them
dictotorsupremus
Although the Roman Republic had greatly increased the territory ruled by Rome, under the emperors even more territory was added to the empire with _____ adding more than any other ruler.
Augustus
When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir, Octavian had to
fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents
Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, did not believe in
withdrawal from public life
Those who ruled Rome from 96 to 180 CE were called the "Five Good Emperors" because they
were capable administrators who governed successfully
Although many emperors who followed Augustus in the Julio-Claudian dynasty were able individuals, many were not, arguably the worst of these was
Caligula
One way that the Romans were influenced by the Greeks was by
observing the many Greeks who lived in Sicily and Southern Italy
After a plebian rebellion in the early 5th century BCE the patricians accepted the
elected tribunes and written laws
As a ruler, Diocletian was known for
separating military from civilian chains of command
The crisis of the early 3rd century was precipitated by the retreat from the
eastern frontier and violent tendencies of Marcus Arelius's son, Commodus
The position of the Sadducees in Palestine during the 1st century CE
The Sadducees believed that interpretation of religious law was for the temple priesthood
One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world be that the
evolving process of Roman leaders coming from everywhere within the empire and people would settle far from their place of birth
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during the
Principate
The Augustan system refers to the
political reforms instituted by Augustus and continued under his successors
The tetrarchy was the split of Rome into halves and the creation of
anaugustus in the West and one in the East who were assisted and would be succeeded by caesars
Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it Diocletian divided
the empire in half, trusting a junior colleague to rule the western part
During the 3rd century, Rome underwent a prolonged period that came very close to destroying the empire. This period is known as the time of the
'Barracks Emperors' when Rome had 26 emperors in about 50 years
One of the problems of the 3rd century caused by Rome's expansion was the
*fact that the empire was no longer centered on Rome
*ever increasing number of people claiming Roman citizenship
*dispersal of resources to the far-flung provinces of the empire
*lack of defensible borders
Jesus is the central figure in Christianity, but Paul was important as the
founder of the universal church, giving it theology and organization
The Dead Sea Scrolls have helped historians to understand the religious climate of the 1st century CE by demonstrating the
diversity of Jewish religious practices and belief
The gospel accounts of Jesus' life were probably written between
70 and 100 CE
By the end of the 3rd century it became obvious that Rome's western and eastern provinces could not be
controlled by a single central government
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the construction of a
system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of portable water to the cities
The Romans were the first people to use ________ on a massive scale in their buildings.
Concrete
The cultural and intellectual developments of the Roman republic came to fruition during the reign of
Augustus
What were the general results of the doctrinal quarrels of the early centuries
the dogmas of the Christian Church gradually became fixed
The 4th century interest in 'orthodoxy' among Christian intellectuals arose from the
need to show that Christianity could withstand the philosophical scrutiny of Greek and Roman traditions
Economic reforms introduced by the early 4th century Roman empire included
wage and price controls fixed by the government
Benedict's monastic rule differed from Basil's rule because it
was less austere and more moderate in its demands for monastic life
On the City of God was a
defense of Christianity by Augustine in the wake of Rome's sack in 410
Many Greek philosophers gained large numbers of Roman adherents and shared several tenets, but the one that was instrumental in influencing Christian theology was
Neoplatonism
Augustine's theological ideas revolved around
human sinfulness and divine omnipotence
The difference between the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire in
culture, economy, and language were great and grew larger over time
Christianity went from being a persecuted faith in early 4th century to being the recognized faith of the empire, this last step was the result of the action by the emperor
Theodosius, who prohibited pagan worship
Once Constatine I and his successor's had converted to Christianity it gained
power and was designated the only official religion by Theodosius
One result of the Council of Nicea was to
* declare Arianism a heresy
* establish the validity of church councils
* establish a means of setting the biblical canon
* establish the close relationship between church and emperor
What point was in dispute between the Arians and Christian orthodoxy
whether Jesus was of the same being and substance as God the Father
The roots of the papacy lie in a
passage from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew
In terms of organization, the 4th century Christian church was more defined in
hierarchical terms, with a clergy distributed among patriarchs, bishops, priests, and deacons
Boethius's most famous work was entitled
The Consolation of Philosophy
Augustine's Confession is
a series of autobiographical essays directed toward God
Jerome's most lasting contribution to western Christian culture was
his translation of the Bible into Latin
Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because
German society was illiterate and Germans did not live in cities
The Christian label for non-Christians is indicative of its
urban origin
By the end of the 3rd century, the involvement of women in the church had
shrunk to the point that they were completely excluded from all positions of power
By 300 CE, Christians numbered no more the 5% of the population of the Roman Empire, one reason for this Diocletian's policy of
persecution of any group deemed to be subversive
The 7th century AD was a turning point in the history of Western civilization because
the Greco-Roman world of antiquity divided into Byzantine, Islamic, and Latin Christian realms
Why did Justinian try to reconquer the western Roman Empire?
because he sought to revive and reconstruct wholly the old empire
Why did Justinian's reconquest of the western Roman Empire fail?
The costs associated with conquering and defending the vast western empire were too great
Chapter 7 dates the beginning of Byzantine history with the accession of
Heraclius in 610
Between 610 and 1071, the major secuity threats to the Byzantine empire came from
Persia, then the Muslim Arab armies that absorbed the Persian Empire and streamed into North Africa
The stability of Byzantine government was the product of
an efficient bureaucracy
The Byzantine economy in the early Middle Ages was
highly regulated, including wage and price controls
The early Byzantine religion was known for its
intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy
The Iconoclastic Controversy of the 8th century AD was about
the use of prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects
Although the Iconoclastic Controversy was eventually resolved, its lasting effects included the
destruction of nearly all pre-eight century religious art in the Byzantine empire
In Byzantine schools, classical Greek literature was
the basis of the curriculum, with much study of the epics of Homer
Women from wealthy Byzantine families
were generally educated at home by tutors, and some became literary figures of note
The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it
placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape
The Hijra (Hegira) refers to the Prophet Muhammad's move from
Mecca to Medina
The Qu' ran contains
the revelations sent by God to Muhammad
Islam spread so quickly in the 7th and 8th centuries because
the Byzantines and Persians had become exhausted by their long wars against each other
In Arabic, caliph means
deputy
The Shiite party arose among Muslims because
of a dispute about the proper succession of caliphs in 7th century Arabia
In comparison to the Umayyad, the Abbasid caliphate
adopted more of the style of Persian royal absolutism
The 1001 Nights describes the extravagant behavior of the Abbasid caliph
Harun al-Rashid
The Shiite claim to legitimacy rests on the direct connection to Muhammad through his daughter
Fatimah
Compared to medieval Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries, the Islamic world was
more advanced in technological sophistication, science, and philosophy
Within Islam, social mobility was encouraged because of
the teachings of Muhammad, which stressed the equality of all Muslim men
Opportunity for advancement in Islamic cultures depended on
one's ability and one's talent
Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy, the
Umayyad
In general, the Christian monasticism of the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries was a response to
the increasing worldliness of the church, the patronage of powerful families like the Merovingians, and a hunger to transform lives in accordance with the will of God
Why were so many convents (monastic houses for women) founded during the 7th century AD
convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for artistocratic families
As a theologian, Pope Gregory I is regarded as the successor to
Augustine
The key figure in creating an alliance between the Carolingian family, the papacy, and Benedictine monasticism was
Saint Boniface
As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that
classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested
Alcuin and his associates contributed significantly to literacy even until today by
copying corrected versions of biblical texts and investing Carolingian miniscule script in the process
Which was a significant event in creating Byzantine hostility toward the Latin Christian world
the coronoation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor on Christmas Day, 800
The Carolingian empire collapsed during the 9th century because
* the structural limits of its expansion had been reached
* the empire was divided among all of Louis's legitimate heirs
* of Viking raids
* the Abbasid and Scandinavian trading system broke down
The Vikings settled the area in Europe known today as:
Normandy
The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the 10th and 11th centuries because of
the fractured political unity of the Islamic world exacerbated dissent and tension within Islam itself
The position of the Pharisees in Palestine during the 1st century CE believed in
life after death and a system of individual rewards and punishments
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the
construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities