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1st 9 weeks Exam APUSH

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Conquistadores
Spanish for conquerors. Men who traveled extensively through the Americas, leading small armies of men, and who established themselves as imperial rulers.
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541). Added a great amount of gold to the Spanish treasury.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Explorer who discovered and named Florida while searching for the "Fountian of Youth"
Hernando de Soto
Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.
Montezuma
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Spanish were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Christopher Columbus
Explorer whose voyage from Spain to "West Indies" in 1492 opened the Atlantic World. Never made it to North America; became a corrupt governor in Hispanola
Hernan Cortes
He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Francisco Coronado
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
mestizo
person of mixed American Indian and European ancestry
three sister farming
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D.; maize, beans and squash were grown together to maximize yields. The rich diet provided by this system led to high population densities especially among the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee people.
Spanish Armada
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spain's Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Pope's Rebellion
Indians began to resist the suppression of their religious customs by the Spanish who were trying to convert them to Catholicism. In 1680, the Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic church in New Mexico and killed hundreds of Spanish colonists. The Indians rebuilt kivas on top of the ruins. After this, it took the Spanish almost a century to fully reclaim New Mexico.
Pueblo Indians
The Pueblo Indians lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.
encomienda system
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Indians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Indians. Essentially, it was slavery.
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Spanish explorer credited with discovering the Pacific Ocean by way of Panama in 1513.
Roanoke
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Joint-Stock Company
The company sold shares of stock to finance the outfitting of overseas expeditions; colonies founded by joint-stock companies included Jamestown (Virginia Company) and New Amsterdam (Dutch West India Company).
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts
Maryland Toleration Act
Granted religious toleration to all Christians in Maryland and was intended to protect the Catholic minority from the Protestants. Was an important precedent for religious toleration in the colonies.
Proprietary Colonies
Colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
Royal Colonies
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
Charter Colonies
Colonies established by a group of settlers who had been given a formal document allowing them to settle
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia; believed he could thwart Spanish and create a new start for the poor people of London and saving them from debtor's prison.
Lord de la Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
Pocahontas
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Walter Raleigh
Received a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to explore the American coastline. His ships landed on Roanoke, which became a "lost colony."
Humphrey Gilbert
An English explorer and the half-brother of Walter Raleigh, he spearheaded England's efforts to colonize Newfoundland. Sadly, before he could accomplish this, he lost his life while at sea in 1583
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
slave codes
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
indentured servitude
the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms of servitude (four to five years), in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter. This method of labor was one of the largest elements of colonial population in America.
Barbados Slave Code
The harsh system of laws governing African labor, first developed in Barbados and later officially adopted by South Carolina in 1696
First Anglo-Powhatan War
when Lord de la Warr introduced Irish tactics against Indians (raiding villages, burned houses, took provisions, and torched fields) ended in 1614 and sealed peace by the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Indians last effort to dislodge Virginians, they were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 stopped any hope of creating native peoples into Virginia society or peace with coexisting.
tobacco
The primary staple crop of early Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Used up large amounts of land, which led to westward expansion.
Pilgrims
English Separatists who first sought refuge from the Church of England in the Netherlands and then in the New World; one such group traveled in 1620 on the Mayflower and established Plymouth.
Separatists
Those who wanted to break all connections with the Church of England as opposed to most Puritans who believed it was possible to reform the church
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Mayflower Compact
an agreement established by the men who sailed to America on the Mayflower, which called for laws for the good of the colony and set forth the idea of self-government
Great Puritan Migration
When continuing turmoil in England brought waves of people to New World; about 75,000 left England, not all Puritans, only about 14,000 came to Massachusetts, many went to West Indies
City on a Hill
Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty (where people did only that which was just and good) that would be an example to the world
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
William Penn
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
Society of Friends
a Christian religious movement, whose members are known as Friends or Quakers. The roots of this movement lie in 17th century English dissenters. Stressed personal inspiration as the source of faith and all action.
Antimonianism
Idea spread by Anne Hutchinson, considered high heresy. Those who believed they were truly saved, did not believe they had to obey the law
Anne Hutchinson
Puritan - Attended church services in Mass., and after illegally held private meetings at her house. Puritan leaders got mad because they thought women didn't have the right to discuss religion, so they forced her out of her colony and she fled to Rhode Island
Roger Williams
A dissenter, clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
New England Confederation
a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that affected all four colonies.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
Thomas Hooker
Puritan minister who led settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Salutary Neglect
British policy before 1763 of generally leaving the colonies alone to conduct their own internal affairs; the abandonment of this policy after 1763 was a major factor leading to revolution and independence.
Navigation Laws
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports, and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.
Edmund Andros
He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly.
elect
In Calvinist doctrine, those who have been chosen by God for salvation. "But neither could the elect count on their predetermined salvation...."
visible saints
A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or "visible saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.
Dutch West India Company
Maintained profitable enterprises in the Caribbean. At times it was less interested in trading than in raiding. Established New Netherland for its quick-profit fur trade, it was never more than a secondary interest of the founders. The company bought Manhattan Island from the Indians.
Middle Passage
Segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey.
Indentured Servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
Headright System
Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Salem Witch Trials
In the 1680's and 1690's adolescent girls of Salem, Massachusetts, accused several West Indian servants of voodoo lore, and hundreds of people (mostly women) of witchcraft, ending with 19 being put to death, and the girls who had been the accusers, admitting that they fabricated their story. This was one of the many examples of hysteria and chaos that broke out due to the tensions that built in Puritan communities.
Halfway Covenant
This Puritan doctrine responded to the declining religious fervor of second and third generation Puritans by providing partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Puritan preachers hoped that this plan would maintain some of the church's influence in society.
Congregational Church
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves.
Harvard College
Founded in 1636, it resides in Cambridge Massachusetts and was created to educate the young men of the Americas, specifically in the ways of religion. However, as time passed and the enlightenment came, more and more subjects were introduced.
Stono Rebellion
1739; Slave rebellion in South Carolina where over 75 slaves killed white citizens and marched through the countryside with captured guns. After the rebellion was crushed, discipline imposed by many slave owners was much harsher. This was the largest slave rebellion of the 1700s in the colonies.
First Families of Virginia
group of Virginians who were among the first to settle in the colony, had lots of land and power in the House of Burgesses, comprised 70% of leaders in VA
gullah
Combination of English and West African languages spoken by African Americans in the South Carolina colony
Nathaniel Bacon
a planter who led a rebellion with one thousand other Virginians in 1676; the rebels were mostly frontiersmen forced toward the backcountry in search of fertile land
William Berkeley
He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 ,which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.
Leisler's Rebellion
Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troops.
Scotch-Irish
Ethnic group that had already relocated once before immigrating to America and settling largely on the Western forntier of the middle and southern colonies
Anglican Church
Church of England started by King Henry VIII in 1533; the monarch was head of the church, which was strongest in North America in the Southern Colonies. By 1776, it was second-largest church in America behind the Congregationalists.
Great Awakening
It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).
George Whitefield
English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation.
Jonathan Edwards
This theologian was an American revivalist of the Great Awakening. He was both deeply pious and passionately devoted to intellectual pursuits. His most popular sermon titled, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," appealed to thousands of re-awakened Christians.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Phyllis Wheatley
A former slave born in Senegal, who was the first African-American woman with published writings, and the first published African-American poet. She was purchased by the Wheatley family in Boston who taught her to read, write and encouraged poetry.
Zenger Trial
This 1735 trial of a New York newspaper editor resulted in a not guilty verdict, since his articles were based on fact. This acquittal was the first important victory for freedom of the press in the colonies and set an important precedent for the libel cases of the future.
tavern
an eating/drinking establishment that was used as a gathering place for information, rumor, and gossip. These were important in crystallizing public opinion as the Revolutionary movement gathered momentum in the colonies.
Poor Richard's Almanack
by Benjamin Franklin (1732-1758) it contained many sayings called from the thinkers of the ages, emphazised such homespun virtues as thrift, industry, morality and common sense. Was well known in Europe and was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible.
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Phillis Wheatley
First African American female writer to be published in the United States. Her book Poems on Various Subjects was published in 1773, pioneered African-American literature. One of the most well- known poets in America during her day; first African American to get a volume of poetry published.
Paxton Boys
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Regulator movement
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
new lights
Revivalist ministers who emphasized emotive spirituality and encouraged missionary work among the natives, as well as founding many long-standing educational institutes, such as Princeton, Brown, and Dartmouth.
old lights
orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the great awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Albany Plan
1754--Delegates from seven colonies meet in New York; Ben Franklin proposed a yearly congress of delegates to address issues of common defense against Indians and the French, trade and customs duties. Was not approved.
Iroquois Confederacy
Group of several Indian tribes that formed defensive alliance; traded with French but especially British while avoiding close relations with both groups; sided with British in French and Indian War.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.
Proclamation of 1763
British government forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachians; angered American colonists and helped cause American Revolution
Pontiac's Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
William Pitt
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Robert de la Salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV
Mercantilism
According to this doctrine, the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country; they should add to its wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency. The settlers were regarded more or less as tenants. They were expected to produce tobacco and other products needed in England and not to bother their heads with dangerous experiments in agriculture or self-government.
Sugar Act of 1764
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Vice Admiralty Courts
In these courts, British judges tried colonists in trials with no fair juries. Colonists questioned this process since there was no "jury of their peers"
Virtual Representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
no taxation without representation
the rallying cry of the colonists; it was unfair that Britain was taxing them even though the colonies had no one in Parliament to represent them
Non-Importation Agreements
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
Committees of Correspondence
Organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Stamp Act
A means of raising revenue in the colonies, and was passed by Parliament. It stated that all legal documents, contracts, licenses, pamphlets, and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. It angered the colonists greatly, and led to the creation of the Stamp Act Congress.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. Leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
First Continental Congress
First political body that convened in 1774 to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress ended up endorsing the Suffolk Resolves, urging a boycott of British imports and sending a petition to King George III
Intolerable Acts
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.
Boston Tea Party
A group, disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest of the Tea Act. It angered the British, and led to the closure of Boston harbor as well as the other Coercion Acts.
Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
Writs of Assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
Direct Tax
British-imposed tax directly on the colonies that was intended to raise revenue; the Stamp act was the first attempt by Parliament to impose a direct tax on the colonies.
Indirect Tax
A measure that raised revenue through the regulation of trade--the Sugar Act, for
example.
Quartering Act
It allowed for British officers to be permitted to stay in the homes of colonials to cut down maintenance cost of the colonial garrison. It angered many colonists, and influenced the third amendment.
Townshend Acts
These acts of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposed duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass. Designed to take advantage of the supposed American distinction between internal and external taxes, these duties were to help support government in America. The act prompted a successful colonial nonimportation movement. Parliament gradually rescinded the tax on all of the items enumerated in the laws except tea. The episode served as another important step in the coming of the American Revolution.
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Samuel Adams
Played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
Gaspee Affair
A custom ship which was known for searching ships without warrants, and stealing food from colonists, ran aground and was burned by colonists. The British then sent a commission to investigate and take suspects to England for trial. Caused Thomas Jefferson to suggest committees of correspondence for each colony.
Currency Act
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
republicanism
Term used to define a just society in which citizens subordinate self interest for the common good. The stability of society and the authority of the government depend on the virtue of the citizenry. Opposed to hierarchical and authoritarian institutinos such as aristocracy and monarch.
John Hancock
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; He was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the plot to store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
George Grenville
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
Quebec Act
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Crispus Attucks
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War
Marquis de Lafayette
Young patriot from France who became George Washington's aide durng the Revolution. Gave money to the colonial cause and became like a son to George Washington.
King George III
the king of England in the 1770's.Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler. He lost all of the 13 American colonies and caused America to start to gain its freedom.
Baron von Steuben
German commander who came to Valley Forge to help George Washington; trained the colonists and taught them discipline
Hessians
German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.
Loyalists
Colonists who opposed American independence and remained loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution.
Charles Townshend
favored restrictions on colonial assemblies; created Townshend Act: imposed taxes on colonial imports of glass, paper, paint, and tea; created Revenue Act: created Board of American Customs Commissioners and vice-admiralty courts;
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain.
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Loyalists
Colonists who opposed American independence and remained loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution.
Declaration of Independence
Statement of the Second Continental Congress that defined the colonists' rights, outlined their complaints against Great Britain, and declared the colonies' independence
John Locke
He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Treaty of Alliance
A defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised military support in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Benedict Arnold
He was an American General during the Revolutionary War (1776). He prevented the British from reaching Ticonderoga. Later, in 1778, he tried to help the British take West Point and the Hudson River but he was found out and declared a traitor.
Marquis de LaFayette
Young patriot from France who became George Washington's aide durng the Revolution. Gave money to the colonial cause and became like a son to George Washington.
General Cornwallis
This British general was second in command to Henry Clinton. His 1781 defeat by a combined American-French force at the Siege of Yorktown is generally considered the de-facto end of the war, as the bulk of British troops surrendered with him.
Lexington and Concord
These battles, fought on April 19, 1775 were the opening engagements of the American Revolution. Though there had been increasing violence and unrest throughout New England for several years, the colonists killed 73 British soldiers and wounded 174 and therefore brought the American patriots into open rebellion.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Valley Forge
Place in Pennsylvania where George Washington and his Continental Army spent the winter. It allowed for Washington to regroup and retrain his rag-tag army.
Trenton and Princeton
Locations of early Revolutionary War battles, in which Washington was victorious, and captured much needed supplies--these are sometimes considered surprise victories for the Americans
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Patrick Henry
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Republicanism
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Richard Henry Lee
Member of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence.
John Jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Comte de Rochambeau
French soldier who commanded the French troops in the American Revolutionary War.He was with General George Washington at the Battle of Yorktown.
Republican Motherhood
An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
Critical Period
This term, coined by John Quincy Adams, refers to the 1780's under the Articles of Confederation, a time right after the American Revolution where the future of the newly formed nation was in the balance. Large amounts of debt, high taxes, foreign affairs, domestic issues, and military concerns were some of the problems Americans faced shortly after the Revolution. These concerns prompted calls for a more vigorous national government that eventually resulted in the Constitution in 1787.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Land Ordinance of 1785
It set up how the new land gained after the revolution would be distributed and organized. The ordinance set up townships that were 36 sq miles where each plot of land was 1 sq mile and the 16th plot was sold for public schooling. The action was a huge success for the Articles of Confederation and it set a precedent for the future frontier states.
western land claims
Delayed Articles of Confederation, By the 1780s, seven of the 13 original states had enunciated claims to areas in the West. These so-called "landed" states had a great potential advantage over the six "landless" states. It was assumed that the future sale of western lands would enrich the landed states and possibly allow them to operate without any form of taxation. The landless states feared that they would lose residents and dwindle into insignificance. All western land was given to the central government.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Congress defined the steps for the creation and admission of new states. It forbade slavery while the region remained a territory although citizens could legalize it. First congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges. Second as soon as 5 thousand male adults lived in a territory, the people could write a temporary constitution and elect a legislature that would pass the territories laws. Third, when the total population reached 60,000 the settlres could write a constituion which Congress would have to approve before granting statehood. Major success under the Articles of Confederation.
Shays' Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Three-Fifths Compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Antifederalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican party.
Federalist Papers
The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Argued that a strong central government/republic would be the most effective way to ensure the rights of its citizens.Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
James Madison
A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.
John Jay
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Enumerated Powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Supremacy Clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Electoral College
The system that the United States used and still uses to elect the president. Each state has a number of electoral votes based on the number of representatives it has in congress. The system showed the lack of trust the founding fathers had in the common man.
Elastic Clause
gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
bundle of compromises
This referred to the fact that the Constitution was trying to please everybody. (Great Compromise; 3/5 compromise; method of electing president; regulation of slave trade)
Census
A valuable tool for understanding demographic changes. The Constitution requires that the government conduct an "actual enumeration" of the population every 10 years.
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Funding and Assumption
Alexander Hamilton's proposition that the federal government pay its debt in full and assume the remaining debt of the states in order to place the government on sounder financial footing. Also would tie wealthy creditors to the federal government, instead of to the states.
Federalists
Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation of the Constitution, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
First American Party System
A term that defines the period of time when the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans competed for the presidency. It was ended with the Era of Good Feelings.
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
Jay's Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships.
Pinckney's Treaty
The treaty between America and Spain in 1795 which granted America practically all they demanded, including navigation of the Mississippian the territory north of Florida. Was a direct result of Jay's Treaty due to Spain's fear of an Anglo-American alliance.
Citizen Genet
French government representative asking for assistance for the French Revolution. Sparked support for the French Revolution.
XYZ Affair
Incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France
Alien and Sedition Acts
In 1798 the Federalist Congress passed these four acts to attack the Republican party and suppress dissent against Federalist policies. The Acts curtailed freedom of speech and the liberty of foreigners resident in the United States. Democratic-Republicans maintained that the acts were an unconstitutional weapon to suppress political dissent, and the acts themselves proved wildly unpopular.
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself. However, he did keep the United States out of a war with France.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Washington's Farewell Address
President Washington decided not to seek reelection in 1796. Near the end of his term he delivered this address that warned the nation against the harmful effects of rivalry between political parties, and against the dangers of permanent alliances with foreign nations.
Democratic-Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Loose constructionism
Supported by Alexander Hamilton (the federalists) where Hamilton believed you could take whatever action you wanted, as long as the Constitution did not specifically say you couldn't do it.
Strict constructionism
Was supported by Thomas Jefferson and the other Republicans and stated that you would feel the need to follow the specific instructions and rules of the Constitution and nothing else.
Undeclared naval war
The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought mostly at sea between the United States and French Republic from 1798 to 1800. It was caused by the seizing of American ships trading with Britain by France which required the rebirth of the United States Navy to protect the expanding American merchant shipping. It would contribute to the War of 1812.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Henry Knox
Secretary of War under Washington, he was a trusted general of the American Revolution; he was entrusted to protect the nation from enemies.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system. The act determined the organization and jurisdiction of the courts.
Convention of 1800
Treaty signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napolean was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Lousiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
cabinet
presidential advisory body, traditionally made up of the heads of the executive departments and other officers
Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans unseated the incumbent Federalist party. It was the first time in a western government where a change in the ruling power had occurred so radically, peacefully, and without bloodshed.
Aaron Burr
Served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress.
Judicial Review
The power of courts to decide whether a governmental institution has acted within its constitutional powers and, if not, to declare its action null and void. First established by the Supreme Court case, Marbury v. Madison
midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
Lewis and Clark
These two men were hired by Thomas Jefferson to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. They traveled 3,000 miles between 1804 and 1806, collecting scientific data and specimens and charting the territory to the west of the Mississippi. Their journey spurred national interest in exploration and settlement of the West.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Barbary Pirates
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
War Hawks
A group of westerners and southerners led by John Calhoun and Henry Clay who pushed for war against Britain. These politicians objected to Britain's hostile policies against US ships, including impressment and the seizure of shipping goods, and advocated fighting instead of submitting to such treatment. They also hoped that through war, the US would win western, southwestern, and Canadian territories.
Tecumseh
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Albert Gallatin
He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France.
Judiciary Act of 1801
One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
James Madison
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Missouri Compromise
1820, Monroe, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
McColluch v. Maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In decided this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshall, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshall's decision, in 1824, was a major blow to states' rights.
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Treaty of Ghent
1814- Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America. This agreement was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Great Britain in the period following the War of 1812.
Hartford Convention
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
Protective Tariff
Tariff that increases the price of imported goods that compete with American products and thus protects American manufacturers from foreign competition. The first truly protective tariff was in 1816.
American System
Proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
John Marshall
Chief Justice(1801-1835); represented the Federalist belief for a strong central government; turned the Judicial branch from weak to strong while popularizing Judicial Review; set the standard for future Chief Justices.
Cohens v. Virginia
1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Fletcher v. Peck
Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.