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Chapter 1: People and Government
Terms in this set (47)
a nation or territory considered as an organized political community under one government.
a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory.
a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.
the authority of a state to govern itself or another state. supreme power or authority.
the governing body of a nation, state, or community.
an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries among theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as a means of explaining the origin of government and the obligations of subjects.
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.
an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.
a sovereign state governed as a single entity. The central government is supreme, and the administrative divisions exercise only powers that the central government has delegated to them.
A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units.
a league or alliance, especially of confederate states.
a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
a system of government based on popular sovereignty in which the structures, powers, and limits of government are set forth in a constitution.
a preliminary or preparatory statement; an introduction.
rights carved out in the federal and state constitutions. The majority of this body of law has developed from state and federal supreme court rulings, which interpret their respective constitutions and ensure that the laws passed by the legislature do not violate constitutional limits.
the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.
is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
a nation with a less developed industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The Federalist Papers
a collection of 85 articles and essays written (under the pseudonym Publius) by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
a system of government by one person with absolute power.
a form of government with a monarch at the head.
a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people.
a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
Direct Democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic, or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.
an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.
an economic system in which private business operates in competition and largely free of state control.
society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity.
a particular political or economic system is a fair system, and that social change should take place within the social institutions provided by it.
the branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses.
Mixed Market economics
an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering.
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.
workers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism).
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Socialism, Communism, Capitalism differences
Capitalism is completely private businesses. Socialism has the important stuff owned by the government. And in communism all business is owned by the government.
an economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government.
a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.
was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 2: Origins of American Government
The Legislative Branch
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