109 terms

Immigrants and Refugees

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Alien
A foreign-born person who is not a citizen or national of US. (Definition by USCIS)
Assimilation
Adaptation of one ethnic group (usually minority) to another. Can include language, traditions, values, behaviors, interests.
Asylee
An alien in the US who is found to be unable/unwilling to return to country of origin. Or they are found to be seeking protection of that country due to persecution based on race, religion, or political group.
Citizenship
The country in which the person is born or naturalized and to which the person owes allegiance and gains protection.
DACA
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. The policy by the US Department of Homeland Security that allows young immigrants who do not have lawful immigration status, but came to the US as children, to remain in the US without fear of deportation.
DAPA
Deferred Action for Parents of Americans. A program from 2014 that allows parents of US citizens to stay as long as they have been in the US for the past year, not have lawful immigration status, and have been in the US on 11/20/14.
Deportation
The act of the state in removing a non-national from its territory and sending them back to the country of their origin.
Diasporas
Broad definition to describe individuals, members, networks, associations, and communities that have left their country of origin. (Expatriate communities, dual nationals, work-based temporary migrants, etc.)
Foreigner
A person that belongs to, or owes allegiance to, another state.
Human Rights
Liberties and benefits based on human dignity that all humans within a society can claim. These have been accepted by contemporary values, and are included in International Bill of Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.
Immigrants and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
Agency within the Department of Homeland Security that handles the enforcement o the immigration laws within the US.
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
Persons or groups who have been forced to flee their place of residence but have not crossed an international border. They may have had to flee due to natural/human disasters, violations of human rights, violence, or armed conflict.
LPR
Abbreviation for Lawful Permanent Resident
Migrant
No definition on international level. Refers to persons/family members who voluntarily move to another country in order to better their material or social conditions for themselves and family.
Naturalization
The state granting nationality to a non-national through a formal process.
Nomad
An individual, often part of a group, who does not have a fixed place of residence and migrates from place to place in search of food/water.
Permanent resident
A non-national benefitting from the right of a permanent residence in a host state.
Port of Entry
Any location in the US or its territories that is designated as a point of entry for aliens and US citizens. This includes district and files control offices.
Prosecutorial Discretion
The legal authority to choose whether or not to take action against an individual who has committed an offense.
Refugee
A person who is outside their country of origin and seeking protection from another country due to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership or a social group, or political opinions.
Remittance
Money earned or acquired by non-nationals that are transferred back to their country of origin.
Resettlement
Permanent relocation of refugees in a place outside of their country of origin. This is accomplished through the direct assistance of private voluntary agencies that work with the Department o Health and Human Services Office or Refugee Resettlement.
Stateless persons
Persons who are not recognized as citizens of any state.
Temporary Protected Status (TPS)
A legislative basis for allowing a group of persons temporary refuge in the US. This is determined by the Attorney General, and is made for 6-18 months, with the option to extend. Aliens cannot be removed under this status.
Trafficking
When a migrant is illegally recruited, coerced, or forcibly moved within or across national borders. Traffickers are people who transport these migrants and profit economically.
Transnationalism
The process whereby people establish and maintain socio-cultural connections across geopolitical borders.
UCIS
US Citizenship and Immigration Services, which is the government agency that oversees lawful immigration to the US.
VISA
An endorsement by the competent authorities of a state in a passport or certificate of identity of a non-national, which establishes the criteria of admission into this state. Given to migrants who wish to leave, enter, or transit the state that gives them this endorsement.
Xenophobia
Attitudes, prejudices, and behavior that reject, exclude, and often vilify persons. These are based on the perception that they are outsiders to the community, society, or national identity. Similar to racism.
A-number
USCIS assigns this number to someone who applies for green card or are placed in removal proceedings
acculturation
changes to cultural mores resulting from direct contact between groups of different cultures. One group adopts the traits of dominant culture.
adjustment to immigrant status
Procedure that allows certain aliens to apply for immigrant status
admission
the granting of entry into a state
affidavit of support
legal document containing a written testimony that a sponsor is able to maintain an immigrant
apprehension
arrest of a removable citizen by DHS
arrival/departure card
a card that is filled out by an individual prior to arriving in destination country. states intended arrival and departure from the country.
beneficiaries
aliens on whose behalf a citizen/employer/LPR has petitioned for immigration benefits
business nonimmigrant
an alien coming temporarily to engage in commercial transactions that do not involve gainful employment in the US
checkpoint
a location where persons are stopped for inspection and clearance by border control
circular migration
the temporary or long-term fluid movement of people between countries
clandestine migration
secret migration in breach of immigration requirements
conditional resident
alien granted LPR status on a conditional basis
contiguous zone
maritime area on the border of a state in which the state has jurisdiction to prevent and punish infringements on customs
country of origin
country that is the source of migratory flows
country of transit
country through which migration flows
crewman
a foreign national serving in a capacity required for normal operations and service on board a vessel or aircraft (admitted for 29 days)
deferred action
use of discretion to not remove an individual from the country for a certain period of time. does not provide immigration status, only prevents removal
de facto partner
a union existing as a matter of fact for purposes of granting permanent residence (spouses, partners, etc.)
de facto refugee
persons not recognized as refugees who are unable or unwilling to return to their country of nationality
department of homeland security (DHS)
government agency created to handle immigration and other security-related issues
departure under safeguards
departure of illegal alien from US which is physically observed by DHS
deportable alien
an alien in the US who is subject to grounds of removal
derivative citizen
citizenship conveyed to children through the naturalization of their parents
detention
restriction of freedom of movement through confinement that is ordered by administrative/judicial authority (can be criminal or administrative)
displacement
forced removal of a person from his/her own country
docket control
DHS mechanism for tracking case status of potentially removable aliens
domicile
place where person is physically present, and is considered their permanent home
duration of status (D/S)
notation on certain nonimmigrant forms that states they are allowed to stay in US as long as for is valid
employment authorization document
general term to describe card to aliens who are authorized to work in US
E-Verify
internet-based system that compares information from an employee's I-9 to confirm employment authorization
exclusion
formal denial of non-national's admission to the State
expedited removal
DHS authorization to remove inadmissible aliens from the US
expulsion
an act with the effect of securing the removal of a person against his/her will from the territory of the State
F-1 nonimmigrant student
alien who is admitted as a full-time student
foreign government official
an alien coming temporarily to US as an accredited official (ambassador, diplomat, consular officer, etc.) and their spouses/children
foreign state of chargeability
the independent country under to which an immigrant entering under the preference system is accredited
foreign migrant workers
foreigners admitted for the specific purpose of exercising economic activity
freedom of movement
a human right that is comprised of the right to movement within a territory, the right to leave the country, and the right to return to his/her own country
green card
identity card issued to non-nationals that grants permanent resident status in the US
grounds of inadmissability
migration laws that define which non-nationals are prohibited from entering the country
H-1B beneficiary
the approve petition associated with a specialty worker admitted on the basis of professional education/skills/experience
habeus corpus
a court action to test the legality of detention or imprisonment. may also be used to review the extradition process, right to amount of bail, or jurisdiction of a court that has imposed a criminal sentence
hemispheric ceilings
statutory limits on immigration, stating how many immigrants are allowed from each hemisphere
humanitarian assisstance
aid that addresses the needs of individuals affected by crises
humanitarian law
international law that was designed for the protection of victims in times of armed conflict
inadmissable
an alien seeking admission at the port of entry who does not meet criteria for admission
INS
Immigration and Naturalization Service (abolished in 2003)
integration
two-way process of adaptation by migrants and host societies (consideration of rights, obligations, and access to different kinds of services)
irregular migrant
A person who lacks legal status in a host country due to unauthorized entry or expired visa
jus cogens
a rule of law that is binding irrespective of the will of individual parties
jus sanginis
child's nationality is determined by parents' nationality, irrespective of place of birth
jus soli
child's nationality is determined by place of birth
laissez-passer
travel document by consular officials to nationals or strangers who the state has assured protection
legalized aliens
illegal aliens who were eligible to apply for temporary resident status under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)
M-1 nonimmigrant student
nonimmigrant status for people who participate in vocational or other nonacademic programs
national of the US
citizen of the US, or someone who owes permanent allegiance to the US
OSC
an abbreviation for the Office of Special Counsel for Immigration-Related Unfair Employment Practices, Department of Justice
parolee
an alien that is allowed due to humanitarian reasons or significant public benefit (temporary status only)
humanitarian parole
aliens allowed due to medical emergencies or comparable situations
overseas parole
long-term admission granted while an alien is still overseas
permanent resident alien
alien that is admitted to US as a lawful permanent resident
preference system
nine categories among which family-sponsored and employment-based immigrant visas are distributed
provisional waiver
waiver for individuals who are otherwise inadmissable based on extreme hardship to us citizen family members
repatriation
personal right of a refugee, prisoner of war, or civil detainee to return to his/her own country of origin
remuneration
anything of value given in exchange for labor or services, including food and lodging
safe haven
temporary refuge given to migrants who have fled their countries to seek protection
SEVIS ID number
identifying number on form I-20 or DS-2009
special immigrants
persons who lost citizenship by marriage, serving in foreign armed services, religious workers, employees of US government abroad, court juveniles, aliens serving in US armed forces, retired employees of international organizations, foreign medical school graduates
voluntary return
assisted or independent return to the country of origin based on the free will of the returnee
voluntary repatriation
return of eligible people to their country of origin based on their free will to do so (often used for refugees, POWs, civil detainees)
visitor
non-national authorized to stay temporarily without participating in a professional activity
universal jurisdiction
national courts can investigate and prosecute a person suspected of committing a crime anywhere in the world
undocumented migrant
non-national who enters or stays in a country without the appropriate documentation
unaccompanied children
persons under age of minority in a country other than that of their nationality who are not accompanied by a parent
transit visa
visa issued to non-national passing through the country enroute to a third destination
transit passengers
persons who arrive in a state with the sole purpose of continuing to a third destination
temporary worker
an alien coming to US to work for a temporary period of time
statelessness
individuals who are nationals of a state but do not have protection from it, due to leaving the country
special naturalization provisions
provisions covering special classes of persons who may be naturalized even though they do not meet all requirements