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BIO CELL MEMBRANE
Terms in this set (48)
also called the cell membrane, is the membrane that surrounds every living cell, whether that cell is a free-living single-cell prokaryote or one of the trillions of eukaryotic cells that make up the human body.
its associated proteins, allows the cell to maintain an interior environment that differs from its surroundings, keeping some substances out and letting others in.
Water loving head
The activity of the transport proteins is regulated and the ability to precisely control what crosses the plasma membrane.
movement of molecules from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
The difference in density between one region and another or one side of a membrane and the other.
The point at which the concentration of molecules on both sides of a membrane is equal.
Protein-assisted movement across a membrane.
pathways through the membrane with two important characteristics.
dictates the direction and rate of flow of ions through ion channels.
proteins that pick up molecules on one side of a membrane and release them on the other side.
The diffusion of water across a membrane down its concentration gradient.
the substances that are dissolved in the water—on each side of the membrane.
This solution, which has a higher concentration of solute (salt) than the cell.
A solution with a lower concentration of solute than the cell.
the concentration of solutes is the same inside and outside a cell—in other words.
Constantly changing shape
Phospholipid molecules have various proteins and carbohydrates embedded within it forming something of mosaic appearance.
-requires no energy
- movement with a concentration gradient for HIGH TO LOW
- osmosis/dialysis (a type of diffusion)
- requires energy (ATP)
- concentration gradient from LOW to HIGH
ingest molecules, viruses, even other cell
membrane-bound sac that moves materials around inside a cell.
the membrane surrounding the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, expelling its cargo to the outside of the cell. This vesicle-driven ejection.
carry information: They may tell a cell to divide or even to kill itself. They may lead a cell toward nutrients or to its proper place in a developing embryo. Or they may help a cell distinguish between friend and foe—allowing an immune cell to attack an infectious bacterium but not the body's own tissues.
embedded in the plasma membrane recognize and respond to different extracellular signal molecules.
a series of interactions in which each signal molecule activates or generates the next, until the final outcome is achieved.
receptor proteins act as enzymes, carrying out specific chemical reactions or activating other enzymes inside the cell.
One common reaction triggered by enzyme-linked receptors.
the elaborate web of chemical interactions that supports life itself.
the assembly of complex structures or molecules (a protein or nucleic acid, for example) from simpler components (amino acids or nucleotides, for example.)
energy of motion.
mixture of stored energy.
differences in the concentration and charge of ions or molecules on either side of a cell membrane.
The flow of energy—from humble autotroph to hungry heterotroph.
a process that transforms one or more molecules.
A reaction that releases energy.
the point at which there's an equal likelihood that the reactants will combine to make a product or that the product will break down to re-form the reactants.
strings of sequential reactions, all carried out by enzymes.
Reactions that break down food molecules into the simple subunits that serve as the building blocks for complex molecules.
reactions that consume energy to produce new molecules.
biological catalysts: they speed up certain reactions by lowering the energy needed to get the reactions started.
For some metabolic enzymes, the buildup of a product can slow down a reaction, because product clinging to an active site blocks the entry of substrates.
Enzymes may also be inhibited by downstream products of a pathway.
chemicals carried by the bloodstream in animals (or the sap in plants) that affect the activity of cells that recognize them.
the manipulation of metabolic pathways to optimize their production of a desired substance.
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