How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

220 terms

Box Quiz Words

The words for Ms. Stein's Global History class.
STUDY
PLAY
Vedas
Aryan collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions, and religious teachings
Brahmins
Priests
Brahman
A single spiritual power that existed beyond the g-ds and resided in all things
Atman
The essential self that every person has
Moksha
Ultimate goal of existence in Hinduism; union with Brahman
Nirvana
Ultimate goal of existence in Buddhism; union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
Castes
Social groups into which people are born and which can rarely be changed
Karma
All the actions in a person's life that affect his or her fate in the next life
Untouchables
Those at the bottom of the caste structure who are considered impure
Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism who meditated under a tree and believed he understood the cause of and cure for suffering and sorrow
Silt
Fertile black mud
Cataracts
River rapids and waterfalls
Nile River Delta
Marshy triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of the river
Pharaoh
Ruler of ancient Egypt and son of God
Hatshepsut
First female ruler in history
Hieroglyphics
System in which symbols or pictures represent objects, concepts, or sounds
Mummification
Preservation of dead bodies by embalming and wrapping in cloth as preparation for the afterlife
Bureaucracy
System of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority
Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamian narrative poem that describes a flood that destroys the world
Hierarchy
System of ranking groups in society
Fertile Crescent
Area of land in between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Ur
Sumerian urban center with an irrigation system and many artisans
Barter
Economy based on exchange of goods and services
Ziggurat
Terraced, pyramid-shaped monument used for religious purposes
Cuneiform
Wedge-shaped marks in wet clay tablets
Hammurabi's Code
Uniform code of laws with punishments based on social class and gender
Royal Road
Road that stretched across the Persian Empire; used for communication and trade
Zoroastrianism
Persian religion based on the constant struggle between good and evil
Arable
Suitable for growing crops
Codify
To set into writing
Culture
Way of life of a group of people
Cultural diffusion
The process of one nation's culture spreading to and being adopted by another culture
Ethnocentrism
Belief that a culture is superior to another culture
Urbanization
Growth and development of cities
Neolithic Age
New Stone Age
Çatalhüyük
Agricultural village in south-central Turkey known for obsidian products
Hominid
Humans and other creatures that walk upright
Artisans
Skilled workers who made goods by hand
City-State
Political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands and villages
Empire
Group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
Chandragupta Maurya
Founder of the Maurya Empire
Dowry
Bride's payment to the groom upon marriage
Asoka
Mauryan emperor who conquered territory and later became a Buddhist missionary
Gupta Empire
Empire under which India experienced a golden age
Huang He
River around which early Chinese civilization developed
Loess
Fertile yellow soil of the Huang River
Dynastic cycle
Rise and fall of dynasties
Feudalism
System of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service to the ruler
Mandate of Heaven
Divine right to rule
Zhou Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that promoted the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to justify its conquest of the previous dynasty
Confucianism
Philosophy concerned with social order and good government
Filial piety
Respect for one's parents
Laozi
Author of the Dao De Jing, which influenced ideas of Daoism
Daoism
Philosophy concerned with living in harmony with nature
Oracle bones
Animal bones on which Shang priests wrote questions to spirits; cracks were interpreted for meaning
Calligraphy
Art form of Chinese writing
Shi Huangdi
China's "First Emperor" who used strict laws and harsh punishments as a basis for his government
Wudi
Emperor of China under the Han dynasty who chose Confucian officials to work for the government and followed a policy of expansionism
Silk Road
Trade network that linked China to the Middle East
Legalism
Method of keeping order in which strict laws and harsh punishments keep people from rebelling
Polis
Greek word for city-state
Sparta
Greek city-state with an emphasis on military discipline
Athens
Greek city-state known for its direct democracy
Direct democracy
System of government in which citizens participate in daily political affairs rather than relying on representatives
Pericles
Leader during the Golden Age of Athens who promoted democracy
Persian Wars
Series of wars between the Greeks and the Persians over land
Peloponnesian War
War that led to the end of Athenian dominance of the Greek world
Homer
Ancient Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Trojan War
Conflict between Mycenae and Troy over Helen, the wife of a Greek king
Mycenaeans
Sea traders who absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian customs and passed them to the Greeks
Socrates
Athenian stonemason and philosopher who believed in learning through questions and answers
Plato
Student of Socrates who emphasized reason, set up a school called the Academy, and wrote The Republic
Aristotle
Student of Plato who favored rule by a single strong and virtuous leader and aimed for a "golden mean"
Alexander the Great
Conquered and ruled a vast empire in which different peoples cooperated and learned from one another throughout the Hellenistic Age
Heliocentric
Sun-centered theory of the solar system
Parthenon
Temple in Athens dedicated to Athena
Idealism
Greek artistic and architectural style that reflected beauty, balance, and harmony
Alexandria
The capital of the Hellenistic world that included the Museum, a market center, lighthouse, and library
Hippocrates
Greek physician who studied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures
Herodotus
Known as the "Father of History"; believed in noting bias and conflicting accounts in sources
Mesoamerica
Cultural region made up of Mexico and Central America
Olmecs
Earliest American civilization; emerged in the tropical forests along the Gulf Coast of Mexico
Stela
Tall, carved monuments made of stone that the Maya used to commemorate important events and figures
Chinampas
Aztec farming method of artificial islands made of mud piled atop reed mats that were anchored to the lake-bed with willow trees
Quipu
Incan record-keeping using colored strings that were knotted in different ways to represent various numbers
Ayllu
Incan village led by local leaders who answered to the emperor
Mesa Verde
Anasazi cliff dwelling of more than 200 rooms in present-day Colorado
Potlatch
Ceremony in which a person of high rank and wealth distributes lavish gifts to a large number of guests
Iroquois League
Alliance of Iroquois nations to keep peace and organize defense against attacks
Earthworks
Large mounds made of earth in various designs and used for various purposes
Charlemagne
Conquered an empire reaching France, Germany, and Italy; became Emperor of the Romans
Feudal contract
Exchange of pledges between lords and vassals to establish the feudal system
Vassal
Lesser lords who pledged military service and loyalty to greater lords in exchange for land
Chivalry
Code of conduct among knights requiring bravery, loyalty, honesty, and protection of the weak and women
Manor
A lord's estate that was self-sufficient
Serf
Peasant who was bound to the lord's manor
Sacraments
Sacred rites of the Church that Christians believed would lead them to salvation
Benedictine Rule
Benedict's specifications for the behavior of monks and nuns; emphasized obedience, chastity, and poverty
Papal supremacy
The pope's claim to authority of all secular rulers
Excommunication
Exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for disobeying Church law
charter
Written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town
Capital
Money for investment
Partnership
A group of merchants who joined together to finance a large-scale venture that would have been too costly for individual traders
Tenant farmer
Someone who would pay rent to a lord to farm part of the lord's land
Middle class
A group of people, including merchants, traders, and artisans, whose rank was between nobles and peasants
Guild
An association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to uphold standards of their trade and to protect their economic interests
Apprentice
Young person learning a trade from a master; often paid in room and board
Journeyman
Salaried worker employed by a guild master
Guild master
A full member of a guild who owned his own shop as a craftsman and employed journeymen and apprentices to teach them the trade
Canterbury Tales
Geoffrey Chaucer's series of poems that depicts life in medieval English society; characters are on a pilgrimage to Canterbury and come from a variety of perspectives and backgrounds
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who defeated Harold and became King of England in 1066
Common law
A legal system based on custom and court rulings
King John
King of England who clashed with nobles and the Church and who signed the Magna Carta in 1215
Magna Carta
Document signed in 1215 by King John that asserted that nobles had certain rights and that the monarch must obey the laws
Habeas corpus
Principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
Parliament
England's legislature that is divided into the House of Lords and House of Commons
Louis IX
Deeply religious King of France who persecuted heretics and Jews led two Crusades against the Muslims
Holy Roman Empire
Empire of west-central Europe from 962 to 1806; comprises present-day Germany and surrounding lands
Lay investiture
Church practice under which a lay person presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office
Concordat of Worms
Treaty signed in 1122 that declared that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority, and the emperor retained the right to invest them with fiefs
Estates General
Legislative body in France with representative from all three estates of French society: clergy, nobles, and townspeople
Crusades
A series of holy wars between the Christians and Muslims over lands in the Middle East
Pope Urban II
Pope who, in 1095, called bishops and nobles to fight the Crusades against the Muslims to recapture the Holy Land
Holy Land
Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believed Jesus lived and preached; also holy for Jews and Muslims
Reconquista
Christian campaign to drive the Muslims from the Iberian peninsula
Ferdinand and Isabella
Powerful Spanish monarchs under whom the Iberian peninsula came under Spanish control; also ended religious tolerance and supported the Inquisition
Inquisition
A Church court set up in Spain to try people accused of heresy, specifically Jews and Muslims
Pope Innocent III
Became pope in 1198 and claimed supremacy over all other rulers; launched a brutal crusade against the Albigensians in southern France
Jerusalem
Present-day capital of Israel; holy city for Christians, Jews, and Muslims
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who wrote about his journey through China; the journey has not been confirmed by historians and scholars
Constantinople
Capital of the eastern Roman empire, Byzantine empire, and Ottoman empire; now known as Istanbul
Justinian's Code
Collection of Roman laws organized by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later serving as a model for the Catholic Church and medieval monarchs
Theodora
Empress who advised Justinian, served as his co-ruler, and pursued her own policies
Icon
Holy images; disputes contributed to the split between eastern and western Christianity
Great Schism
1054 split between the Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church
Steppe
Open, treeless grassland that makes up Russia's southern geography
Cyrillic
Alphabet created by Cyril, a Greek monk, to adapt the Greek alphabet to translate the Bible into the Slavic tongue; written script that is still used today in Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, and Bulgaria
Golden Horde
Mongol armies that invaded Europe in 1237 and ruled Russia for over two centuries
Ivan the Great
Absolute ruler who conquered vast amounts of land and tried to limit the power of the boyars
Ivan the Terrible
First Russian ruler officially crowned tsar; limited privileges of boyars, tied serfs to land, organized a secret police, slaughtered people suspected of disloyalty
Ethnic group
Group of people who share the same language and cultural heritage
Golden Bull of 1222
Charter that nobles forced the Hungarian king to sign that limited royal power
Mecca
Pilgrimage center located on several trade routes and birthplace of Muhammad
Muhammad
Prophet who devoted his life to spreading Islam
Kaaba
Shrine within the Great Mosque in Mecca towards which Muslims turn when they pray
Quran
Sacred text of Islam
Mosque
Muslim place of worship
Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Jihad
Personal duty of Muslims to overcome immorality within themselves
Sharia
Islamic body of law that includes interpretation of the Quran, examples of behavior from Muhammad's life, and Muslim traditions
Caliph
Successor to Muhammad; Muslim religious and political leader
Shiite
Muslims who believe that the true successor to Muhammad is a descendant of Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, and Fatima, Muhammad's daughter
Sunni
Muslims who believe that the true successor to Muhammad is a pious male from Muhammad's tribe; majority of Muslims today
Sufi
Mystical branch of Islam in which followers seek communion with G-d through meditation, fasting, and other rituals; spread Islam by traveling and preaching
Umayyad caliphate
Dynasty of Sunni caliphs who ruled the Muslim empire from Damascus, Syria; conquered vast territory, spread Islam, and laid the foundation for ethnic and religious diversity in the empire
Minarets
Prayer tower at a mosque from which muezzins call Muslims to prayer
Sultan
Muslim ruler
Sikhism
Religion started by Nanak that attempts to blend Islamic and Hindu beliefs
Akbar the Great
Mughal ruler who created a strong central government, believed in religious toleration for Hindus, and led a series of reforms
Taj Mahal
Tomb designed by a Persian architect that Shah Jahan built for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, when she died
Africa
Second largest continent made up of over fifty countries
Savannas
Grassy plains that make up much of Africa's geography
Sahara
Largest desert in the world
Desertification
Process by which fertile or semi-desert lands become desert
Mansa Musa
Emperor of Mali who expanded Mali's borders, converted to Islam, and promoted religious tolerance and trade
Songhai
Wealthy trading empire that emerged after Mali lost power
Swahili
East African culture and language that developed in East Africa
Great Zimbabwe
Trade capital built by a succession of Bantu-speaking people who settled in the region between 900 and 1500, brining iron, mining methods, and improved farming skills
Ghana
The "land of gold" from which the king controlled the gold-salt trade routes across West Africa
Griot
Professional storyteller who recited ancient stories from West Africa
Tributary states
States that remain self-governing but whose rulers have to acknowledge the supremacy of another leader and send regular tribute
Tang dynasty
Dynasty started by Li Yuan under which China was restored to its former glory
Song dynasty
Dynasty that followed the Tang under which China's wealth and culture dominated East Asia
Genghis Khan
Mongol chieftain who took control over Central Asia; imposed strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty
Kublai Khan
Grandson of Genghis Khan who toppled the Song emperor and formed an all-Mongol government in China
Zheng He
Chinese admiral and siplomat who commanded seven exhibitions that led Chinese merchants to Southeast Asia and India
Celadon
Porcelain with a glue-green glaze made in Korea
Hangul
Korean phonetic alphabet that uses symbols to represent the sounds of spoken Korean
Shinto
Japanese religion that emphasizes the worship of nature
Bushido
Samurai code of values that emphasized honor, bravery, and absolute loyalty to one's lord
Humanism
An intellectual movement in which people believed education should stimulate the individual's creative powers
Petrarch
Early Renaissance humanist, poet, and scholar who lived in Florence; often called the "Father of Humanism"
Medici
Wealthy merchant and banking family that gained control of the Florentine government in 1434; politicians and patrons of the arts included Cosimo and Lorenzo
Perspective
Technique making distant objects smaller than near objects to make paintings that appeared three-dimensional
Chiaroscuro
Using light and shading in a painting
Leonardo da Vinci
Painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer; considered the ideal "Renaissance man" for his influence and many talents
Michelangelo
Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet; considered himself a sculptor first, but is best known for his murals on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Raphael
Painter who blended Christian and classical styles in his works, the best known of which is The School of Athens
Baldassare Castiglione
Author of The Book of the Courtier, which describes the manners skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have
Niccolò Machiavelli
Author of The Prince, which provides a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power, and urges leaders to do whatever is necessary to achieve their goals
Johannes Gutenberg
Used a printing press with movable type to print the first complete edition of the Bible in 1455
Indulgence
Lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory; earned through good deeds during the Middle Ages but bought and sold during the Renaissance
Martin Luther
German monk who posted the 95 Theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg; a series of arguments against indulgences and for Church reform
John Calvin
Swiss reformer who believed in predestination; set up a theocracy in Geneva in which followers stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty, and morality
Predestination
Idea that who would gain salvation was predetermined; those who would be saved were known as the elect
Henry VIII
King of England who started the Church of England in order to obtain a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon; father of Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward Tudor
Heliocentric
Nicolaus Copernicus' theory of a sun-centered model of the universe
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer and mathematician who used Tycho Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun; supported Copernicus's heliocentric view
Galileo Galilei
Built an astronomical telescope; tried in front of the Inquisition and forced to recant his beliefs that the sun was the center of the universe
René Descartes
Frenchman who emphasized human reason as the best way to understand the world; believed that doubt was the only thing that was unquestionable; said, "I think, therefore I am"
Dutch East India Company
Trading company formed by wealthy Dutch merchants; had full sovereign powers
Conquistadors
Spanish conquerors who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain
Hernán Cortés
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs
Tenochtitlán
Capital of the Aztec empire
Moctezuma
Aztec emperor who sent gifts to Cortés, negotiated with him, and was later forced to sign over Aztec land to the Spanish
Francisco Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca
Encomienda system
Spanish practice of demanding labor or tribute from Native Americans that ultimately led to widespread death and destruction
Bartolomé de Las Casas
Spanish priest who spoke out against the encomienda system and urged the colonists to import workers from Africa
Triangular trade
Triangle-shaped series of trade routes linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Middle Passage
Second leg of the triangular trade in which captured Africans were brought to the Americas; millions died during the voyage and upon arrival in the Americas
Philip II
Spanish king who centralized the government and asserted that he ruled by divine right
Divine right
Idea that authority to rule came directly from a Supreme Being
Armada
Spanish fleet that was defeated when it attempted to invade England
Edict of Nantes
Documents signed by Henry IV of France in 1598 granting religious toleration to Huguenots
Louis XIV
"Sun King" who never called the Estates General and believed in divine right
Versailles
Louis XIV's palace, later the sight at which many treaties were signed
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan leader of the Roundheads who eventually became the leader of the English republic
English Bill of Rights
Document passed by Parliament in 1689 that ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy and required Parliament to approve all spending
Peter the Great
Russian absolute ruler who westernized Russia and pushed social and economic reforms
Catherine the Great
Russian absolute ruler who reorganized the provincial governments, codified laws, began public education, embraced Western ideas, and fought a series of wars to gain part of Poland