32 terms

Earth Systems Test study set

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How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
What happens to rocks on the Earth over time?
They erode (wear) away.
What is the process where Earth's layers (core, mantle, and crust) were formed over time?
Differentiation
What is the name of the variable in an experiment that is not changed?
Controlled variable
How many neutrons are in the nucleus of a nitrogen-16 isotope?
protons = 7 so mass number (16) minus protons (7) = 11
What is the name of the variable in an experiment that is measured?
Dependent variable
What is the primary reason for Earth having oxygen in its atmosphere?
photosynthesis of plants and cyanobacteria
Why were hydrogen and helium gases were lost in Earth's first atmosphere?
The Earth's gravity was too weak and the solar wind blew it away because the gases are light.
What is the name of the variable in an experiment that is the one factor the experimenter is changing?
Independent variable
What is the name of the heating process where hot magma rises and moves the Earth's crust or plates, around?
Convection (currents)
Name the four ways we have learned about the layers of the Earth
Volcanoes, Seismic waves, magnetosphere, and meteorites
Name the terrestrial, rocky planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Name the Jovian or Gas Giant Planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
How do seismic waves help us learn about the Earth's layers?
Waves travel through different materials at different speeds.
P (primary) waves slow down in liquids.
S (secondary) waves can only travel through solids.
Why did the planets closest to the sun not form full of gas?
They were too close to the sun - it was too hot
Why do you need to repeat an experiment several times?
To make sure that you have similar (alike) data.
Where did the water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia gases come from in Earth's second atmosphere?
outgassing from volcanoes
How doe meteorites tell us about the Earth's layers?
Composition of Earth believed to be similar to meteorites. There are three types of meteorites and three layers in the Earth (core, crust, mantle):
1. Chondrites (Stony-Iron) - mixed rocky & metal materials
2. Stony - lighter, rock materials
3. Iron - metals, mostly iron and nickel
Of the rocky, terrestrial planets, which ones are closest in size?
Venus and Earth
What would cause the oxygen levels of the Earth to go down?
Animals start using the oxygen to live.
Clouds and dust in the atmosphere could cause plants to not be able to get sunlight to go through photosynthesis.
What does the magnetosphere tell us about Earth's layers?
That there must be a spinning liquid, metallic, outer core.
The spin creates a magnetic field.
The magnetosphere protects Earth from solar wind.
Be able to label a diagram of Earth with crust, inner core, outer core, and mantle.
How did the Earth's fresh water become salty?
Rainwater carried salty dissolved rocks and sediments to the oceans.
What are Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus made of?
Ices like Water ice and Ammonia Ice
When two atoms are smashed together to make one bigger atom, this is called what?
Fusion
How was our solar system formed?
A spinning nebula (cloud of gas and dust) collapsed into a flat pancake-like shape and plantesimals formed.
What would cause the Earth's oxygen content to rise?
Photosynthesis of plants and cyanobacteria releasing oxygen
What two processes keep the oceans salty?
Deposition and Evaporation
When one atom is hit with a neutron so that is splits into tow atoms, what is this called?
Fission
When warmer, less dense material rises to the top and cooler, denser material drops to the bottom, this is due to what?
Convection currents
What are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars made of?
rocks and metals
Thinking about the densities that we looked at, which material has the closest density to water?
a. rocks
b. metals
c. Gases like hydrogen and helium
C. Gases like hydrogen and helium are closer to the density of water (1.og/mL)

Rocks have a density closer to 5>0g/mL and iron metal is closer to 7.0g/mL
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