Chapter Five: Infant Bio-social Development
Terms in this set (40)
In infancy, the growth is so rapid and the consequences of neglect are so severe that gains are closely monitored. Medical checkups, which include the measuring of height, weight, and head circumference should occur every few weeks at first to determine whether an infant is progressing as expected
Body size: Infants typically double their birth weight by the fourth month and triple by age 1. Example: a baby that at birth is 7 pounds (3,250 Grams) might be 14 pounds (6,500 Grams) four months later and 21 pounds (9,750 Grams) in 1 year. Physical growth after that slows, but is still rapid. By 24 months, most children is 28 pounds ( 28 KG) and have grown from being 20 inches tall at birth, to 34 inches tall.
1. Most two year-olds are half their adult height, and about 1/5 their adult weight; 4x heavier than they were at birth.
2. Much of the weight increase in the early months is fat. Baby fat is stored to keep the brain nourished if teething or sniffles interfere with eating.
A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damage by malnutrition.
A point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100. The 50th percentile is the midpoint; half the people in the population being studied rank and half rank lower.
Information that percentiles provide:
Percentiles may alert professional that something is wrong. If a newborn is at the 50th percentile in height and weight, but later is at the 40th percentile in height and 80th percentile in weight, the infant may be getting too heavy.
Newborns spend most their time sleeping, about 15 to 17 hours. The hours of sleep decrease rapidly with maturity:
The norm for 2 months is 14 1/2 hours; the next 3 months is 13 1/4 hours; for 6-17 months is 12 3/4 hours.
Variation is particularly apparent in the early months, when 5 percent of new babies sleep 9 hours or fewer a day and another 5 percent sleep 19 or more hours a day.
The specific of sleep vary (not just because of age or baby's characteristics) because of social environment. With responsive parents with children that were full term and well fed, usually sleep more than lower birth weight ones, who need to eat every two hours. Babies who are fed cow's milk and cereal sleep more soundly, which is not necessarily good. If parents respond to predawn cries with food and play, babies learn to wake up night after night.
Regular and ample sleep correlates with normal brain maturation, learning, emotional regulation, academic success, and psychological adjustment. Children who wake up frequently and sleep too little, often have other physical or psychological problems. Life long sleep deprivation can cause health problems.
Over the first months, the relative amount of time spent in each type of stage of sleep changes. Babies born preterm may always seem to be dozing, full term babies newborns sleep a lot; about half of their sleep is REM sleep. Dreaming declines over the early weeks, as does "transitional sleep" , the dozing, half awake stage. At 3-4 months, quiet sleep (slow wave sleep) increases.
Rapid eye movement, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed eyes lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves.
Additional facts on sleep:
By three months, babies have periods of sleep, alertness and deep sleep.
Developmentalists agree that insisting an infant to conform to the parents sleep-wake schedule can be frustrating and, in some cases, harmful to the infant, whose brain patterns and digestions are not ready for a long nights sleep, parents suffer. Which in turn can affect the parents.
The newborn's skull is disproportionately large, which is because it needs to be big enough to hold the brain, at birth is 25 percent of its adult weight. By age two, the brain is almost 75 percent of adult brain weight; the child's total body weight is about 20 percent of adults weight.
How Neurons Communicate:
Within and between brain areas, neurons are connected to other neurons by intricate networks of fibers called axons and dendrites. Each neuron has a single axon and numerous dendrites, which spread out like branches of a tree. The axon of one neuron meets the dendrites of other neurons at intersections called synapses, which are critical communication links within the brain. To be more specific, neurons communicate by sending electrochemical impulses through their axons to synapses, to be picked up by the dendrites of other neurons.
A fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons.
A fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons.
The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons.
Release of chemicals
The process by which the axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speed up the transmission of nerve impulses from the neuron to neuron.
The great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that occur in an infant's brain during the first two years of life. i. At birth, the brain contains more than 100 million neurons, more than any person will ever use. Also, the brain has far fewer dendrites and synapses that the person will eventually have. Dendrite growth is the reason why the brain weight increases 300 percent from birth to age 2. An estimate of fivefold increase in dendrites in the cortex occurs about 24 months from birth and is called Transient Exuberance.
A process that unused neurons and disconnected dendrites atrophy and die. Example: one may prune a rose bush by cutting parts to enable more beautiful, roses to bloom. Pruning occurs after Transient Exuberance.
Experience Expected Brain Function:
Brain functions that require certain basic common experience (which the infant is expected to have) in order to develop normally.
Experience-dependent Brain Functions:
Brain functions that depend on particular, variable experiences and that therefor may or may not develop in a particular infant.
What is the least developed sense at birth
The response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus.
Selection of stimulus in Infants:
Infants are attracted to social stimuli preferring sensations from people, not objects.
The sense of hearing develops In the last trimester of pregnancy and is already acute at birth. At birth certain sounds triggers reflexes, even without conscience perception. Sudden noises startle newborns, making them cry; rhythmic sounds such as a lullaby, or a heartbeat, soothe them or put them to sleep. Infants particularly attend to voices, sensitive hearing combines with the developing brain to distinguish patterns of sounds and syllables, infants become accustomed to the rules of their language (and dialect).
The eyes open in mid-pregnancy and a sensitive to bright light. Newborns are legally blind; they can only see objects between 4 and 30 inches away. By two months, an infant looks more intently at a human face. Three month olds look closely at the eyes and mouth.
The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image. This ability is absent at birth. At 14 weeks, binocular vision occurs.
The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation. Perception occurs in the cortex. Perception requires experience, either direct experience or messages from other people.
when a foot is stroked, the toes fan upward.
When a newborns are held upright, feet touching a flat surface, they move their legs as if to walk.
When held horizontally on their stomachs, newborns stretch out their arms and legs.
Palmar Grasping Reflex:
When someone touches newborns palms, they grip it tightly.
When someone bangs on the table they are lying on, newborns fling their arms outward and then bring them together on their chests, crying with wide open eyes.
Gross Motor Skills:
Physical abilities involving large body movement, such as walking and jumping.
Fine Motor Skills:
Physical abilities involving small body movement, especially hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin.
Successes: Small pox, polio, measles (rubeola, not rubella) and rotavirus vaccinations had led to a decrease amount to children dying because of a fatal diseases and the disappearance of other deadly diseases. Immunizations protects children not only from temporary sickness but also from complications, including deafness, blindness, sterility and meningitis.Each vaccinated child stops the spread of diseases and protects others. Problems with immunization: many parents are concern about the side effects
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome:
The sudden death of a infant; usually from sleeping and not waking up, suffocation. Especially when the infant has been sleeping on its stomach.
Nutrition starts with colostrum, a think, high calorie fluid secreted by the mothers breast at birth. After about three days, the breast begin to produce milk. Compared with formula based on cow's milk, human milk is sterile; always at body temperature; rich in iron, vitamins, and other nutrients.
The Benefits of Breast Feeding: For The Baby
The Benefits of Breast Feeding
For the baby
Balance of nutrition (fat, protein, etc.) adjusts to the age of the baby
Brest milk has micronutrients not found in the formula
Less infant illness, including allergies, ear infections, stomach upsets
Less childhood asthma
Better childhood vision
Less adult illness, including diabetes, cancer and heart disease
The Benefits of Breast Feeding: For The Mother
Easier bonding with the baby
Reduce risk of breast cancer
No formula to prepare
The Benefits of Beast Feeding: For The Family
Increase survival of other children (spacing)
Less stress on father
Increase family income (no expensive formula)