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Generalized Model for Program Planning

1. assessing needs
2. setting goals and objectives
3. developing an intervention
4. implementing the intervention
5. evaluating the results

Three F's of Program Planning



Green, L. & Kreuter, M.
*Model begins with CONSEQUENCES & works back to CAUSES


Reinforcing and
Constructs in
Diagnosis and


Regulatory and
Constructs in
Educational and

PRECEDE evaluation tasks

specifying measurable objectives and baselines

PROCEED evaluation tasks

monitoring & continuous quality improvement

Phase 1: Social Assessment & Situational Analysis

-seeks to subjectively define the quality of life (problems & priorities) of the priority population
-achievement, alienation, comfort, unemployment, crime, discrimination, welfare, happiness, self-esteem

Phase 2: Epidemiological Assessment

-use of data to identify & prioritize the health problems that contribute to the needs identified in Phase I
-disability, mortality, mortality statistics, as well as genetic, behavioral and environmental factors

Phase 3: Educational and Ecological assessment

Classifies factors that influence behavior as:
Predisposing factors
Enabling factors
Reinforcing factors

Predisposing factors

knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, perceptions that facilitate or hinder a person's motivation to change (E.g., a fat baby is a loved baby)

Enabling factors

barriers or vehicles created by societal forces or systems: e.g, access to health care facilities; availability of resources; referral to appropriate providers; enactment of rules or laws; development of skills (e.g., referral to oncology specialist and ability to get there)

Reinforcing factors

feedback or rewards received after behavior change that encourage or discourage the continuation of the behavior; delivered by family, friends, peers, teachers, self, and others

Phase 4: Administrative and Policy Assessment & Intervention Alignment

Intervention Alignment: Matches strategies and interventions with desired changes and outcomes
Administrative Policy Assessment: Are the capabilites and resources available to develop and implement the program? What policies currently exist that are relevant to the problem? What policies may need to be added?

Phase 5: Implementation

-planners use information available to select the methods and strategies for the interventions
-best practices
-implementation begins!

Phase 6: Process evaluation

-assess availability and quality of program
-number of participants, quality of instructors, content, methods, time allotments, materials

Phase 7: impact evaluation

-assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of program participants following the program

Phase 8: Outcome evaluation

assess long term outcome on health status, quality of life



MATCH Intervention levels

At what level(s) of society will the intervention be aimed?
1. Individual
2. Interpersonal
3. Organizational
4. Societal
5. Governmental

MATCH Phase 1

Goal Selection:
step 1: select health-status goals
step2: select high-priority population(S)
step3: identify health behavior goals
step4: identify environmental factor goals

MATCH Phase 2

Intervention planning
step 1: identify the targets of the intervention (TIA's)
step2: select the intervention objectives
step3: identify mediators of the intervention objectives
step 4: select intervention approaches

MATCH Phase 3

Program Development:
step 1: create program units or components
step2: select or develop curricula and create intervention guides
step3: develop session plans
step4: create or acquire instructional materials, products, and resources

MATCH Phase 4

Implementation Preparations
step 1: facilitate adoption, implementation, & maintenance
step2: select & train implementers

MATCH Phase 5

step1: conduct process evaluation
step2: measure impact
step3: monitor outcomes

Consumer-Based Planning

All program decisions are based on consumer input and made with consumers in mind.
*Health communication
*Social Marketing

Health Communication

the use of strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions to enhance health (e.g., mass media campaigns)

Social Marketing

a program-planning process designed to influence the voluntary behavior or a specific audience segment to achieve a social rather than a financial objective (e.g., "this is your brain. this is your brain on drugs. Any questions?")

CDCyngery Phases

Phase 1: Describe Problem
Phase 2: Analyze Problem
Phase 3: Plan Intervention
Phase 4: Develop Intervention
Phase 5: Plan Evaluation
Phase 6: Implement Plan

Describe the problem

CDCyngery Phase 1: ____________________
-identify and define health problems that may be addressed by your program intervention
-examine or conduct necessary research
-assess likelihood of success (SWOT : Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats)

Analyze problem

CDCyngergy Phase 2: _____________
-list causes of each problem to be addressed
-develop goals for each problem
-select the types of intervention(S) that should be used to address the problem(s)

Plan intervention

CDCynergy Phase 3: ____________
-decide whether communication is a dominant intervention or a support for other interventions
-conduct necessary audience research (segmenting)
-write communication objectives for each audience segment
-write a creative brief to guide intervention development

Develop intervention

CDCynergy Phase 4: __________
-develop & Test concepts, messages, settings & materials with intended audiences

Plan Evaluation

CDCynergy Phase 5: __________
-determine stakeholder information needs
-decide which types of evaluation are needed
-identify sources of information and select data collection methods
-formulate an evaluation design
-develop a data analysis and reporting plan

Implement plan

CDCynergy Phase 6: ___________
-integrate, execute, and manage communication and evaluation plans
-document feedback and lessons learned
-modify program components based on feedback
-disseminate lessons learned and evaluation findings


Assessment and

SMART Phases

1. Preliminary Planning
2. Consumer analysis
3. Market analysis
4.Channel Analysis
5. Develop intervention materials & pretest
6. Implementation
7. Evaluation

Systematic Approach to Health Promotion

(Healthy People 2010)
1. goals
2. objectives
3. determinants of health
4. health status


Mobilizing for
Action through
Planning and

MAPP Phases

1. organizing for success and partnership development
2. visioning
3. four MAPP assessments
4. Identify strategic issues
5. formulate goals and strategies
6. the action cycle (implementation and evaluation)

Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH)

1. organizational assessment
2. Community process
3. completing the cycle

SWOT analysis

strategic planning model used in business & marketing

Healthy Communities (Cities)

Oh Canada!
-mobilize key individuals and organizations
-assessing community needs, strenghts, and resources
-plan for action
-implement the action plan
-track progress and outcomes

Health Communication Model

National Cancer Institute (NCI)
1. Planning and strategy development
2. Developing and pretesting concepts, messages, and materials
3. Implementing the program
4. Assessing effectiveness and making refinements

Intervention Mapping

Translates data gathered in the PRECEDE phases into appropriate interventions
1. Needs assessment
2. create a matrix of change objectives (individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, societal)
3. Theory-based methods and practical strategies
4. Program
5. Adoption and implementation
6. Evaluation planning

Healthy Plan-It

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
1. Priority setting
2. Establishing goals
3. Outcome objectives
4. Strategy
5. Evaluation
6. Budget

Logic Models

A logical series of statements that link the problems your program is attempting to address (conditions), how it will address them (activities), and what are the expected results (immediate, intermediate, and long-term outcomes)


(logic model)
problems, issues, assumptions, constraints; often identified through needs assessment


(logic model)
specific things that will be done to address the conditions


(logic model)
-benefits or changes expected to occur for individuals or populations during or after participating in activities;
-changes often relate to awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, behavior, or conditions;
differentiate between short-term (within 1year) and long-term (Longer than 1 year)
-example: decrease disruptive student behavior occurrence among 9-12th graders by 30%


(logic model)
a broad statement of measurable long-term impact;
what the activities are ultimately intended to accomplish.
ex: to help ensure at all schools are safe, disciplined, and drug-free.

Sequence of the logic model

Conditions - Activities - Outcomes - goals

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