Models for Program planning

Generalized Model for Program Planning
1. assessing needs
2. setting goals and objectives
3. developing an intervention
4. implementing the intervention
5. evaluating the results
Three F's of Program Planning
Green, L. & Kreuter, M.
*Model begins with CONSEQUENCES & works back to CAUSES
Reinforcing and
Constructs in
Diagnosis and
Regulatory and
Constructs in
Educational and
PRECEDE evaluation tasks
specifying measurable objectives and baselines
PROCEED evaluation tasks
monitoring & continuous quality improvement
Phase 1: Social Assessment & Situational Analysis
-seeks to subjectively define the quality of life (problems & priorities) of the priority population
-achievement, alienation, comfort, unemployment, crime, discrimination, welfare, happiness, self-esteem
Phase 2: Epidemiological Assessment
-use of data to identify & prioritize the health problems that contribute to the needs identified in Phase I
-disability, mortality, mortality statistics, as well as genetic, behavioral and environmental factors
Phase 3: Educational and Ecological assessment
Classifies factors that influence behavior as:
Predisposing factors
Enabling factors
Reinforcing factors
Predisposing factors
knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, perceptions that facilitate or hinder a person's motivation to change (E.g., a fat baby is a loved baby)
Enabling factors
barriers or vehicles created by societal forces or systems: e.g, access to health care facilities; availability of resources; referral to appropriate providers; enactment of rules or laws; development of skills (e.g., referral to oncology specialist and ability to get there)
Reinforcing factors
feedback or rewards received after behavior change that encourage or discourage the continuation of the behavior; delivered by family, friends, peers, teachers, self, and others
Phase 4: Administrative and Policy Assessment & Intervention Alignment
Intervention Alignment: Matches strategies and interventions with desired changes and outcomes
Administrative Policy Assessment: Are the capabilites and resources available to develop and implement the program? What policies currently exist that are relevant to the problem? What policies may need to be added?
Phase 5: Implementation
-planners use information available to select the methods and strategies for the interventions
-best practices
-implementation begins!
Phase 6: Process evaluation
-assess availability and quality of program
-number of participants, quality of instructors, content, methods, time allotments, materials
Phase 7: impact evaluation
-assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of program participants following the program
Phase 8: Outcome evaluation
assess long term outcome on health status, quality of life
MATCH Intervention levels
At what level(s) of society will the intervention be aimed?
1. Individual
2. Interpersonal
3. Organizational
4. Societal
5. Governmental
MATCH Phase 1
Goal Selection:
step 1: select health-status goals
step2: select high-priority population(S)
step3: identify health behavior goals
step4: identify environmental factor goals
MATCH Phase 2
Intervention planning
step 1: identify the targets of the intervention (TIA's)
step2: select the intervention objectives
step3: identify mediators of the intervention objectives
step 4: select intervention approaches
MATCH Phase 3
Program Development:
step 1: create program units or components
step2: select or develop curricula and create intervention guides
step3: develop session plans
step4: create or acquire instructional materials, products, and resources
MATCH Phase 4
Implementation Preparations
step 1: facilitate adoption, implementation, & maintenance
step2: select & train implementers
MATCH Phase 5
step1: conduct process evaluation
step2: measure impact
step3: monitor outcomes
Consumer-Based Planning
All program decisions are based on consumer input and made with consumers in mind.
*Health communication
*Social Marketing
Health Communication
the use of strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions to enhance health (e.g., mass media campaigns)
Social Marketing
a program-planning process designed to influence the voluntary behavior or a specific audience segment to achieve a social rather than a financial objective (e.g., "this is your brain. this is your brain on drugs. Any questions?")
CDCyngery Phases
Phase 1: Describe Problem
Phase 2: Analyze Problem
Phase 3: Plan Intervention
Phase 4: Develop Intervention
Phase 5: Plan Evaluation
Phase 6: Implement Plan
Describe the problem
CDCyngery Phase 1: ____________________
-identify and define health problems that may be addressed by your program intervention
-examine or conduct necessary research
-assess likelihood of success (SWOT : Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats)
Analyze problem
CDCyngergy Phase 2: _____________
-list causes of each problem to be addressed
-develop goals for each problem
-select the types of intervention(S) that should be used to address the problem(s)
Plan intervention
CDCynergy Phase 3: ____________
-decide whether communication is a dominant intervention or a support for other interventions
-conduct necessary audience research (segmenting)
-write communication objectives for each audience segment
-write a creative brief to guide intervention development
Develop intervention
CDCynergy Phase 4: __________
-develop & Test concepts, messages, settings & materials with intended audiences
Plan Evaluation
CDCynergy Phase 5: __________
-determine stakeholder information needs
-decide which types of evaluation are needed
-identify sources of information and select data collection methods
-formulate an evaluation design
-develop a data analysis and reporting plan
Implement plan
CDCynergy Phase 6: ___________
-integrate, execute, and manage communication and evaluation plans
-document feedback and lessons learned
-modify program components based on feedback
-disseminate lessons learned and evaluation findings
Assessment and
SMART Phases
1. Preliminary Planning
2. Consumer analysis
3. Market analysis
4.Channel Analysis
5. Develop intervention materials & pretest
6. Implementation
7. Evaluation
Systematic Approach to Health Promotion
(Healthy People 2010)
1. goals
2. objectives
3. determinants of health
4. health status
Mobilizing for
Action through
Planning and
MAPP Phases
1. organizing for success and partnership development
2. visioning
3. four MAPP assessments
4. Identify strategic issues
5. formulate goals and strategies
6. the action cycle (implementation and evaluation)
Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH)
1. organizational assessment
2. Community process
3. completing the cycle
SWOT analysis
strategic planning model used in business & marketing
Healthy Communities (Cities)
Oh Canada!
-mobilize key individuals and organizations
-assessing community needs, strenghts, and resources
-plan for action
-implement the action plan
-track progress and outcomes
Health Communication Model
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
1. Planning and strategy development
2. Developing and pretesting concepts, messages, and materials
3. Implementing the program
4. Assessing effectiveness and making refinements
Intervention Mapping
Translates data gathered in the PRECEDE phases into appropriate interventions
1. Needs assessment
2. create a matrix of change objectives (individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, societal)
3. Theory-based methods and practical strategies
4. Program
5. Adoption and implementation
6. Evaluation planning
Healthy Plan-It
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
1. Priority setting
2. Establishing goals
3. Outcome objectives
4. Strategy
5. Evaluation
6. Budget
Logic Models
A logical series of statements that link the problems your program is attempting to address (conditions), how it will address them (activities), and what are the expected results (immediate, intermediate, and long-term outcomes)
(logic model)
problems, issues, assumptions, constraints; often identified through needs assessment
(logic model)
specific things that will be done to address the conditions
(logic model)
-benefits or changes expected to occur for individuals or populations during or after participating in activities;
-changes often relate to awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, behavior, or conditions;
differentiate between short-term (within 1year) and long-term (Longer than 1 year)
-example: decrease disruptive student behavior occurrence among 9-12th graders by 30%
(logic model)
a broad statement of measurable long-term impact;
what the activities are ultimately intended to accomplish.
ex: to help ensure at all schools are safe, disciplined, and drug-free.
Sequence of the logic model
Conditions - Activities - Outcomes - goals