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30 terms

Sensation and perception ch 4-6

STUDY
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The relationship between environmental regularities, physiology, and perception is most likely established by
experience-dependent plasticity
A cell in area V1 of a monkey is shown to fire when a vertical bar is presented. When bars of random orientation are added around the vertical bar, the firing rate of the cell _______; when bars of some of the surrounding bars are changed to a vertical orientation, the firing rate of the cell _________.
decreases; increases
Perceiving the emotional aspects of a face are reflected by activation in the brain structure called the
amygdala
Gestalt psychologists used the example of illusory contours to support the claim that
the whole is different than the sum of its parts
The ___________ problem shows that numerous physical stimuli can create exactly the same image on the retina
inverse projection
Humans need approximately ____ to perceive the gist of a scene.
250 ms
One criticism of recognition-by-components theory is
geons do not usually provide enough information to discriminate between different objects with the same basic components
_____________ is the proposed reason why V1 neurons can make figure-ground discriminations
Contextual modulation
The Olympic symbol is an example of the Gestalt law of
simplicity (Pragnanz)
According to recognition-by-components theory, we recognize objects by volumetric features called
geons
The important finding of Carrasco et al.'s (2004) research was that
the attended-to grating is perceived to have a higher contrast than another, identical grating
In Reddy et al.'s (2007) "dual-task condition", which task was accurately done 90% of the time?
face discrimination
The spreading enhancement effect of attention can help us perceive
occluded objects
Change blindness may be explained by the lack of ______ in a scene, which would attract attention in a naturalistic setting
movement
One aspect of the visual system that helps us achieve selective attention is
the concentration of cones in the fovea
"Learning from past experience" as a factor involved in attention was demonstrated by Shinoda et al. (2001), who showed that drivers are more likely to detect stop signs when they were positioned at
at the intersection
_____________ is when a stimulus that is not attended is not perceived, even though the person is looking directly at the stimulus
inattentional blindness
Posner's precueing studies demonstrated that attention
increases the efficiency of information processing
People tend to fixate on high contrast and brightly colored objects in a visual scene. This is called __________ and is a ___________ process
stimulus salience; bottom-up
Parkhurst et al. (2002) showed that observers make initial fixations in a visual scene based on
stimulus saliency
Unlike simple cells, complex cells respond best to
moving stimuli
To measure _________, the experimenter decreases the intensity difference between the light bars and the dark bars until an observer can just barely detect the difference between the dark bars and the light bars
contrast threshold
The dorsal extrastriate pathway starts in the ______ lobe and goes to the _______ lobe
occipital; parietal
Graphing the response of a simple cortical cell results in the
orientation tuning curve
Object discrimination problem: ____ :: Landmark discrimination problem :_____
temporal lobes; parietal lobes
_________ refers to the fact that the response properties of neurons can be shaped by an animal's or person's perceptual experience
Neural plasticity
Prosopagnosia
is the inability to recognize familiar faces
Selective rearing refers to
raising an organism in an environment that contains only certain types of stimuli.
The results of the patient D.F., who had visual form agnosia
show that perception and action are independent of each other in the brain
Most of the signals travel from the retina to the ______ via the optic nerve
lateral geniculate nucleus