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The relationship between environmental regularities, physiology, and perception is most likely established by

experience-dependent plasticity

A cell in area V1 of a monkey is shown to fire when a vertical bar is presented. When bars of random orientation are added around the vertical bar, the firing rate of the cell _______; when bars of some of the surrounding bars are changed to a vertical orientation, the firing rate of the cell _________.

decreases; increases

Perceiving the emotional aspects of a face are reflected by activation in the brain structure called the


Gestalt psychologists used the example of illusory contours to support the claim that

the whole is different than the sum of its parts

The ___________ problem shows that numerous physical stimuli can create exactly the same image on the retina

inverse projection

Humans need approximately ____ to perceive the gist of a scene.

250 ms

One criticism of recognition-by-components theory is

geons do not usually provide enough information to discriminate between different objects with the same basic components

_____________ is the proposed reason why V1 neurons can make figure-ground discriminations

Contextual modulation

The Olympic symbol is an example of the Gestalt law of

simplicity (Pragnanz)

According to recognition-by-components theory, we recognize objects by volumetric features called


The important finding of Carrasco et al.'s (2004) research was that

the attended-to grating is perceived to have a higher contrast than another, identical grating

In Reddy et al.'s (2007) "dual-task condition", which task was accurately done 90% of the time?

face discrimination

The spreading enhancement effect of attention can help us perceive

occluded objects

Change blindness may be explained by the lack of ______ in a scene, which would attract attention in a naturalistic setting


One aspect of the visual system that helps us achieve selective attention is

the concentration of cones in the fovea

"Learning from past experience" as a factor involved in attention was demonstrated by Shinoda et al. (2001), who showed that drivers are more likely to detect stop signs when they were positioned at

at the intersection

_____________ is when a stimulus that is not attended is not perceived, even though the person is looking directly at the stimulus

inattentional blindness

Posner's precueing studies demonstrated that attention

increases the efficiency of information processing

People tend to fixate on high contrast and brightly colored objects in a visual scene. This is called __________ and is a ___________ process

stimulus salience; bottom-up

Parkhurst et al. (2002) showed that observers make initial fixations in a visual scene based on

stimulus saliency

Unlike simple cells, complex cells respond best to

moving stimuli

To measure _________, the experimenter decreases the intensity difference between the light bars and the dark bars until an observer can just barely detect the difference between the dark bars and the light bars

contrast threshold

The dorsal extrastriate pathway starts in the ______ lobe and goes to the _______ lobe

occipital; parietal

Graphing the response of a simple cortical cell results in the

orientation tuning curve

Object discrimination problem: ____ :: Landmark discrimination problem :_____

temporal lobes; parietal lobes

_________ refers to the fact that the response properties of neurons can be shaped by an animal's or person's perceptual experience

Neural plasticity


is the inability to recognize familiar faces

Selective rearing refers to

raising an organism in an environment that contains only certain types of stimuli.

The results of the patient D.F., who had visual form agnosia

show that perception and action are independent of each other in the brain

Most of the signals travel from the retina to the ______ via the optic nerve

lateral geniculate nucleus

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