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three kinds of muscle proteins


proteins that switch the contraction process on and off


proteins that generate ofrce during contraction


functions as a motor protein which can achieve motion


convert ATP to energy of motion


thick filaments


thin filaments


provide a site where a myosin head can attach


proteins that align the thick and thin filaments properly


two types of structural proteins


stabalize the position of myosin


links thin filaments to the sarcolemma

ATP hydrolysis/formation of cross-bridges/power stroke/detachment of myosin from actin

4 steps of the contraction cycle

ATP hydrolysis

step that reorients and energizes the myosin head

formation of cross-bridges

step of the contraction cycle where the myosin head attaches to the myosin-binding site on actin

power stroke

step where the crossbridges rotates, sliding the filaments

detachment of myosin from actin

step where the myosin head detaches from actin

action potentials

causes Ca++ to be released from the SR into the muscle cell


moves tropomyosin away from the myosin-binding sites on actin allowing cross-bridges to form

Ca++ pumps

return Ca++ back to the SR quickly

length of sarcomeres

the forcefulness of muscle contraction depends on this

neuromuscular junction/synapse/synaptic cleft/neurotransmitter/synaptic vesicles/motor end plate

structures involved in the contraction process

neuromuscular junction

action potentials arise at the interface of the motor neuron and muscle fiber


where communication occurs between a somatic motor neuron and a muscle fiber

synaptic cleft

gap that seperates two cells


chemical released by the initial cell communicating with the second cell

synaptic vesicles

sacs suspended within the synaptic end bulb containing molecules of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

motor end plate

the region of the muscle cell membrane opposite the synaptic end bulbs

release of ACh/activation of ACh receptors/production of muscle action potential/termination of ACh activity

nerve impulses elicit a muscle action potential in the following way


crossed eyes


blocks release of ACh from synaptic vesicles

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