78 terms

Greek Mythology Test 1

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Etiological Myth
A myth used to explain facts that cannot be otherwise be explained using society's knowledge at the time
What are the three general types of myths?
Divine, Legends, Folktales
Divine Myths
"True Myth" about gods to provide explanation
Legends
stories about "heroes" to provide explanation of historical facts (most Greeks believe they really existed)
Folktales
Stories about common people to provide entertainment
What natural resources did they early Greeks enjoy?
olives, wheat and barley, grapes, goats, sheep, pig, cattle
What natural resources did the early Greeks lack?
Precious metals
What type of products did early Greeks import and export?
imported copper and tin for bronze; exported =?
Who were the Indo-Europeans?
A cultural and linguistic group in central Asia
Which island was the Minoan civilization based on?
Crete
What is the site of Knossos?
The mythological location of King Mino's palace
What is Linear A?
Undeciphered language but not Greek
What characterized Minoan art?
Naturalistic; bull is important theme
What what Linear B?
Unique Mycenaean script used for keeping economic account
Who was Michael Ventris?
Dude who deciphered Linear B in 1952
What was Cyclopean architecture?
Usage of stones so large that Greeks thought only a cyclops could have moved them
Name the Mycenaean centers?
Mycenae, Thebes, Orchomenus, Athens, and Pylos
What characterized Mycenaean art?
Bull = important theme, but warfare = more frequent
Who was Heinrich Schliemann?
Excavated in Mycenae and Troy
Why was the Dark Age considered "dark"?
Technology and advancements were lost; most elements of civilization were lacking
What was significance of the Archaic Period?
Invention of the Greek Alphabet (from Phoenician roots); Homeric epics were written down; development of the polis; coinage; experiments in different types of gov
What types of governments did Greeks experiment with during the Archaic Period?
Tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy
What is significant about the Classical Period?
Athenian democracy developed
Name Greek authors who wrote historiography
Herodotus and Thucydides
Name Greek authors who wrote tragedies?
Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides
Which Greek author wrote comedies?
Aristophanes
Who were the major combatants during the Peloponnesian War?
Athens and Sparta
Who won the Peloponnesian War?
Sparta
Who's death marks the beginning of the Hellenistic period?
Alexander the Great
Pederasty
Older men courting a younger boy; mentoring + often times a physical relationship
Symposium
Drinking party held in the men's quarters; all about food, drink, and sex
Gymnasium
Literally the naked place
Cosmogony
The origin of the world
Theogony
The origin of the gods and their rise to power
Which goddesses are responsible for poetic inspiration?
Muses (daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne)
What mountain is Boeotia are the Muses connected with?
Mount Helicon
Who is considered the most power Titan?
Cronus
The Furies
ferocious female spirits who drive to madness those who shed the kindred blood; born from the blood of castration of Uranus
Aphrodite
goddess of sexual love
The Sphinx
influenced by Egyptian art; deadly monster who terrorized the city of Thebes
Cerberus
a fifty headed (or three-headed) dog who guarded the gates of Hades (think Fluffy from Harry Potter)
Titanomachy
Zeus and his allies vs Cronus and the Titans; Olympians win
Atlas
Perhaps one of the Titans, was condemned by Zeus to live at the edge of the world and hold up the heavens
Typhoeus
Battles with Zeus; cast to Tartarus where he sends forth winds that scatter ships and destroys sailors
Prometheus
"fore-learner"; known for playing tricks on Zeus
Where does sacrifice typically take place?
Altars
What sorts (and what parts) of animals were offered to the gods?
internal organs; tail, high bones wrapped in fat and burned as offerings
Name the five races?
gold, silver, bronze, the heroes, and iron
Zeus is the god of. . .
storms
Hera is the goddess of. . .
family
Poseidon is the god of. . .
sea
Demeter is the goddess of...
harvest
Athena is the goddess of...
knowledge
Apollo is the god of...
prophesy
Artemis is the goddess of...
hunt
Ares is the god of...
war
Aphrodite is the goddess of...
sex
Hephaestus is the god of...
forge
Hermes is the god of...
travel
Dionysus is the god of...
wine
What are the emblems of Zeus?
Staff, thunderbolt, bull, eagle, aegis (goat skin)
Xenia
Formal institution of friendship and reciprocal hospitality
How did consultants question the god?
Individuals and official delegations made inquiries on a range of subjects: they were inscribed on lead tablets
How did priests divine the god's answer?
Priests may have interpreted the will of the god by listening to the sound of the wind as it blew through the leaves of a sacred oak tree.
Horae
Traditionally, they guarded the gates of Olympus, promoted the fertility of the earth, and rallied the stars and constellations, started as more of spirits but became goddesses, they were seasons and time in general
The Graces
They were Aglaea (splendor), Euphrosyne (mirth) and Thalia (good cheer), and they were also linked to the Underworld. Considered by many children of Zeus and Eurynome
Fates: white-robed incarnations of destiny. Their number became fixed at three: Clotho (spinner), Lachesis (allotter) and Atropos (unturnable). They controlled the metaphorical thread of life of every mortal from birth to death
The Muses
Each of nine goddesses, the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, who preside over the arts and sciences
Ganymede
He is abducted by Zeus, in the form of an eagle, to serve as cup-bearer in Olympus. Homer describes Ganymede as the most beautiful of mortals. Hero from Troy
Hera
"Cow-eyed"; Goddess of marriage and of women's fertility, sacred animal was the cow; Argos, Samos, Olympia especially sacred to her
Who were the children of Zeus and Hera?
Eileithyia (childbirth), Hebe ("youth," like Ganymede a servant of the gods), Ares (war), Hephaestus (craftsman)
Anthropomorphism
gods in the form of humans
Nectar and Ambrosia
Food of the gods
Polytheism
Worshipping of many gods
Pantheon
All of the gods who receive worship
Xenophanes and monotheism
Attacked conventional views of the gods; Insisted on one supreme, nonanthropomorphic God
Evolutionary/Improvisatory Religion
no specific origin or teaching
Revealed Religion
founders, monotheistic, written documents
Seers (manteis)
Observe the flight of birds and examine the entrails of slaughtered animals