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prevailing idealogy of the 19th century assumptions of the way people behave, emphasizes self control, optimism, and sexual repression.

Revolving players

was the practice of players moving from club to club in response to the highest bidder, Because of the game's desire to hide the paying of players and the public's ambivalence or hostility towards the practice, no safeguards existed to prevent abuses, made the two month waiting period

100 Guineas Cup

100 Guineas Cup yacht race around the Isle of Wight. Seeking both nationalist validation and individual legitimacy, Stevens formed a syndicate to build a yacht called, appropriately, America, with the intention of entering and winning the 100 Guineas Cup, which it did in 1851.

Isaac Murphy

1st black jockey. Very successful but very conspicuous with how he spent his money. Made white people jealous. Raced/defeated Snapper Garrison. Murphy was the trigger for the jockey syndrome

Festive Culture

included dozens of rituals, traditions and celebrations, frequently aligned with religious festivals, holidays or observances. generally witnessed a relaxation of acceptable behavior standards (particularly when it came to lower class deference to elites), and often included the consumption of alcohol.

Rough and Tumble Fighting

operated largely without rules, and as a result was marked by its savagery and its disfigurement, the ultimate of which was eye-gouging.

Spirit of the Times

In the third quarter of the 19th century, the first newspaper that was dedicated to detailing these athletic contests began in the US. They retained an interesting connection to sports and other activities and followed the world of sports.

Male bachelor sub-culture

attracted the single young males that flocked to Market Revolution-era centers of production. also wealthy men who enjoyed a night out with the boys (and, usually, booze, gambling, and hookers) but whose wealth largely insulated them from social criticism. Opposed all the victorian ideas

Sporting Fraternity

was at once a unified brotherhood embracing shared values and class identities, and simultaneously a fractured, tribalized group of varying ethnic and religious differences. opposed victorianism

Urban Saloon

a dedicated drinking establishment, they became ideal locations for the emergence of antebellum sporting activities. Catering almost exclusively to the male bachelor subculture, they featured a variety of wines, liquors, ales and cigars, as well as copies of all the latest American and British sporting sheets.

Firefighting Companies

competed with others to reach blazes & extinguish them first. They might be offered some financial compensation from a grateful homeowner, they competed for the public acclaim and social esteem derived from engaging in dangerous and heroic acts on public display, also public skills contests

Tom Brown's Schooldays

published Tom Brown's School Days, in 1857, stressing tradition, idealism, Christian morality, and the development of masculinity, all in the environment of higher education. Most importantly, it glorified collegiate life, and in particular, the playing of college rugby by the protagonist, The book caused many American collegians to long for similar college sporting activities in the United States

John Cox Stevens

Heir to a steamboat fortune, he used his wealth to drastically enlarge sporting events, build new venues, and generally assert the legitimacy of American sportsmen. he built the Elysian Fields in New Jersey, created the new york yact club

Elysian Fields

. Home to yachting, cricket, & ball clubs, the Fields became one of the first status venues in the United States.

American Eclipse

the first racing celebrity of the antebellum period. Eclipse was a celebrated racer who defeated all comers until his owner finally issued this bold challenge

New York Knickerbockers

first professional baseball team, got much support from urban workers who saw it as an escape from their work

National Association of Baseball Players

group of pro baseball teams formed in 1871; any ball club that was able to pay could play; not uncommon for teams to form, break up and reform all in one season.

Caledonian Clubs

rise of track and field in the modern sense is due mostly to the Scottish tradition created by them, These clubs were intended to serve as explicit preservations of traditional Scottish heritage, the clubs looked to uphold a Scottish past, rather embrace an American future

Gaelic Athletic Association

was probably the greatest runner of his generation,

Lon Myers

Greatest runner of his generation. Clubs who lost out on his free agency process and frustrated over the inability to defeat him, as well as furious that they had to compete against a Jew, now accused Myers of engaging in professionalism, were tired of losing to him

Amateur Athletic Foundation


Bloody Monday football rush


Camp Randall Stadium

football maintained an ideological connection to warfare. Such connections were sometimes more explicit than others, such as the naming of Wisconsin's Camp Randall Stadium.

Walter Camp

Father of college football. He came up with the "All American" phrase. Changed many rules to create the game we see today. He was against the forward pass. Basically made football except for the forward pass.

Flying Wedge

not only placed the line in the backfield, but also took advantage of rules that allowed for forward motion before the snap of the ball. As a result, with the ball carrier tucked behind a V formation, offenses used pre-snap forward momentum and simply ran over defenses, had too many violent collisions.

tramp athletes


Bill Reid

Harvard in 1905 finally hired him, a former Harvard player who had been the star of Harvard's only defeat of Yale in 15 years, was paid 7,000 to coach, was fired in two season going 13-3, losing twice to Yale.

Thanksgiving Day spectacles

Created as a championship game by the original student-run Intercollegiate Football Conference, were not played on campus or in conjunction with any university facility or event rather held in big cities, alumni through parties

Football Crisis of 1905

Several magazines ran exposes on the sports, focusing mostly on brutality because of a black player who died, Roosevelt had to make the game cleaner promise to end roughness, holding and foul play

The Strenuous Life

TR was a sickly child who redefined manhood for future generations of American men through his "Open Air Boys" program, and obsession with outdoor activities

Muscular Christianity

Christian commitment to health and manliness premised on the belief that an association existed between "physical strength, religious certainty, and the ability to shape and control the world around oneself"

Luther Gulick

-The Young Men's Christian Association Training School appointed him as supervisor of physical training.
-Strongly influenced by the concept of muscular Christianity, he was totally dedicated to the use of organized games and sports as a major educational focus.
-He was instrumental in establishing the Playground Association of America.

Public Schools Athletic League

founded by Luther Gulick in New York. After leaving the YMCA in 1900, Gulick took his philosophy to the public schools, abandoned the fitness-oriented program of gymnastics and calisthenics for competitive sports and games.The League featured participatory, inter-class, and city-wide competition, designed to serve as an integrative tool of social reform

Evolutionary Theory of Play


"safety" bicycle

it was invented in 1885 it is similar to the modern bicycle, made it safer, made it cheaper,

Welfare Capitalism

when companies provide incentives to build better relationships with employees; health insurance, safety standards, buy stock in the company

Intersettlement Athletic Association


What Every Girl Ought to Know

declared it an ideal recreation for young girls. Practical necessity also affected a reconsideration of fashion, reducing the outrageously restrictive skirt lengths and corsets of the Victorian period.

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