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Psych Test #2 (chapter 3)

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Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal Patterns
2 types of growth patterns
Cephalocaudal Pattern
Sequence in which fastest growth always occurs at the top-the head
Cephalocaudal Pattern
Growth pattern in which growth in size, weight and feature differentiation gradually work its way down from top to bottom
The lower parts (as the jaws)
According to the cephalocaudal pattern, the eyes and brain grow faster than these (explains why little ones have such big eyes)
Sensory and Motor
These 2 types of development follow the cephalocaudal principle
Torso; crawl or walk
Cephalocaudal principle; infants can see before they can control this; they use their hands before they can do these 2 things
Proximodistal Pattern
This is the growth sequence that starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities
Hands and Fingers
According to the proximodistal pattern, muscle control of the trunk and arms matures before control of these 2 things
95%
This percent of newborns are 18-20 inches long and weigh between 5.5 and 10 lbs
20 inches and 7.5 pounds
The average newborn is this length and weight
5-7%
During the first several days of life, most newborns lose this percent of their weight; but once they adjust to sucking and feeding they gain 5-6 ounces/week during the first month
4 months; 1 year
Infants double their weight by this many months, and triple their weight by this time
1
Infants grow this many inches per month during the first year and reach 1.5x their birth length by the end of first year
Cerebral Cortex
This part of the brain is responsible for 80% of brain volume and is critical in perception, thinking, language and other functions, particularly the prefrontal cotrex
Prefrontal Cortex
The cerebral cortex is critical for many functions including this cortex
Frontal Lobes
This part of the brain is involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality
Occipital Lobes
This part of the brain is responsible for vision
Temporal Lobes
This part of the brain is responsible for hearing, language and memory
Parietal Lobes
This part of the brain is responsible for touch, spatial location, attention and motor control
Neurons
These send information impulses throughout the nervous system from neuron to neuron across synapses via neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
These are used to transfer impulses between neurons across the synapse
Experience
Neuroscientists believe that what wires and re-wires the brain is this
Deprived
Children who grow up in this kind of environment may have depressed brain acitivity
Attachment
In this, both baby's brain and mom's brain show physical changes
25%
At birth the newborn's brain reaches this percent of its adult weight
75%
By the 2nd birthday, the brain reaches this percent of its adult weight
Myelination
This is the process of encasing axons with a myelin sheath; this begins in utero and continues throughout childhood into adolescence
Adolescence
Most extensive myelination in the prefrontal cortex occur during this time
Synaptic
These kinds of connections increase dramatically in the first 2 years of life; nearyly twice as many as used are created; they are then pruned as they are not needed
2
Nearly this times as many synaptic connections as used are created; and then prunes as they are not needed
16-17 Hours
Newborns sleeo this many hours per day (range is 10-21 hours)
Night
The longest period of sleep is not always at this time
4 Months
By this time, infants have moved closer to adult-like sleep patterns, sleeping most at night
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
This is sleep in which brain activity is similar to when we are relaxed but awake; the eyeballs move rapidly
1/5
Most adults spend this fraction of the night in REM sleep; sleep usually appears 1 hour after non-REM sleep; for adults dreaming mainly occurs during REM
1/2
Infants spend this much of their sleep in REM
Infants
They often begin their sleep in REM
Adults
They often enter REM 1 hour after sleep
3 Months
By the time infants reach this age, REM sleep drops to 40% and they no longer begin sleep in REM
Perceptions
The infant's brain is too immature to process most of these (dreaming)
Sight
It is a while before this is developed enough in an infant to process his/her surrounding
Vitreous
The darting of eyes of REM sleep serve the vital function of lubricating this of the eye
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
This is when infants stop breathing, usually during the night, without cause (highest cause of infant death in the US)
4-6 Weeks
Risk of SIDS is highest at this many weeks
Backs
SIDS risk decreses when babies sleep on this
SIDS
Risks for this include low birth weight (5-10x more likely); and infants whose sibling died of this (2-4x more likely); soft bedding
6%
Sleep apnea affects this percent of infants
SIDS
This is more common in socio-economic groups (lack of education)
SIDS
This is more common in infants passively exposed to cigarette smoke
Poverty
This influences health through its effects on nutrition
Energy and Nutrition
In infancy the importance of receiving adequate amounts of these 2 things in a loving, supportive environment cannot be overstated
50
Nutritionists recommend that infants consume this many cals/day for each pound they weigh
Childhood Obesity
Advantage of breast feeding; Appropriate weight gain with a lower risk of this
Fewer Allergies
Advantage of breast feeding; fewer of these due to immunity from mom
Diarrhea, respiratory infections, bacterial and urinary tract infections, and otitis media (middle ear infection)
Advantage of breast feeding; Reduction of these things
Denser Bones
Advantage of breast feeding; denser this during childhood and adulthood
SIDS
Advantage of breast feeding; lower incidence of this (cut in half)
Neurological and Cognitive
Advantage of breast feeding; improved visual acuity as well as these 2 kinds of development
Breastfeed
Moms who are HIV positive should not do this; and moms who have active TB or moms who are on drugs that may not be safe for the infant
Marasmus
This is severe malnutrition due to insufficient caloric intake
Marasmus
Infants who have this disease caused by malnutrition have a wasted apprearence
Kwashiorkor
This is sever malnutrition due to protein deficiency; child's abdomen and feet swell with water
Developing Countries
Malnutrition in infancy are more prevalent in these countries
Reflexes
These are automatic responses beyond the infant's control; built-in reactions to stimuli
Survival Mechanisms
Developmental psychologists think of reflexes as survival mechanisms
Nervous System
Reflexes indicate the maturity and effectiveness of this in the infants
Sucking Reflex
Reflex; way to get nutrition from mom or the bottle
Rooting Reflex
Reflex; stroke an infant;s cheek and he/she will turn his/her heard searching for the breast
Moro Reflex
Reflex; startle response that occurs due to a loud noise or a movement that scared the infant; the infant arches back, throws out his/her arms and then comes forward to grasp onto the caretaker; attachment theory says the infant holds on and bonds to the caretaker
Grasping Reflex
Reflex; put your finger on the palm of the infant's hand; he/she will grab onto your finger
Arnold Gesell
He discovered that infants and children develop rolling, sitting, standing and other motor skills in a fixed order within specific time frames
Development
Later studies of the Gesell's view on this pointed out that this is not quite so fixed and not quite as genetically based as Gesell though
Dynamic Systems Theory
This proposed by Esther Thelen claims that infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting; perception and action are coupled in the theory
Environment; movements
Dynamic Systems theory; to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something here that motivates them to act and use their perception to fine-tune these
Posture
Gross motor skills require this kind of control
Moving Objects
To track these, infants must be able to control its head to stabilize its gaze
Walk
To do this the infant must be able to balance on one leg
Dynamic Proces
Posture is this kind of process
Posture
This is a dynamic process that is linked with sensory information from cues in the skin, joints and muscles which tell the infant where he/she is
Vestibular Organs
Posture uses these organs in the inner ear the regulate balance and equilibrium
Erect
Within a few weeks, infants can hold their heads this way and can lift their heads while lying on their tummy
2 Months
By this age, babies can sit while supported on a lap or in an infant-seat
6-7 Months
Babies can sit independently by this many months
8 months
By this age, infants can pull themselves up and hold onto a chair
10-12 Months
Standing develops by this age
Depth Perception
This ability was evident in 6-12 month olds, before this not too many babies crawl; binocular vision (3-4 months) in order for cues
Expectations
By the time babies are 3 months, infants not only see forms and figures, but also develop these about future events
Predictable
When pictures were presented to infants in this kind of sequence, the infant began to turn his/her head in the direction of the predicted location of the next picture
6-8 Months
By this age, infants have learned to perceive gravity and support
Hear
From 7 months in utero, the fetus can do this
The Cat in the Hat
This was the book used to test hearing on infants in utero; after being born they preferred to hear this story because it was read to them in the womb
Learning
Considering babies who were read the Cat in the Hat in the womb preferred this book read to them when they were infants, this shows that they can not only hear in utero, but are also capable of this
Mother's
Newborns prefer this voice as opposed to an unfamiliar woman
Classical Music
Infants prefer this kind of music to rock
Pitch
Infants are less sensitive to this of a sound than adults are (can't determine frequency high or low, etc.)
Soft Sounds
Immediately after birth, infants cannot hear these sounds as well as adults can
Location
Newborns can identify this of the sounds; this ability develops through the second year
Human Speech
Newborns are particularly sensitive to the sounds of this
1 in 1000
About this many newborns are deaf; but this can usually be improved through surgery of the hearing aid
Otitis Media
1/3 of children from birth to 3 years suffer from this; middle-ear infection; can temporarily impede hearing
Otitis Media
Treatments for this include antibiotics and tubes in the inner ear to drain fluid
Touch
Newborns do respond to this; reflexes as palmer, rooting, and babinski demonstrate this
Pain
Newborns do feel this; this becomes an issue with circumcision of newborn boys; now little anesthesia is used
Odors
Newborns can differentiate these; they like the smells of vanilla and strawberry; but they do not like the smell of rotten eggs and fish
Breast Pad
By age 6 days, breast-fed babies have a preference for this of their mother's; at 2 days they do not have a preference because the sense is developing
Amniotic Fluid
In utero, swallowing increased when saccharin was added to the this
Salty Flavors
Newborns are aversive to these flavors, but by 4 months they prefer these flavors
Intermodal Perception
This involves integrating information from 2 or more sensory modalities such as vision and hearing (more than 1 sense)
Intermodal Perception
The fact that newborns look more at a mother/father when they hear his/her voice is an example of this kind of perception
Jean Piaget
He is a swiss psychologist who was a keen observer of children; used his own children as sibjects
Cognitive Developmental Theory
This theory is based on the assumption that children construct their understanding of the world; this theory is based on maturational development (children are little scientists)
Jean Piaget
Psychologist who came up with the cognitive developmental theory
Maturational Development
The cognitive developmental theory is dependent on this kind of development
Nature
The cognitive developmental theory is basically this kind of theory although it contains elements of the nurture theory
Nurture
While the cognitive developmental theory is basically a nature theory, since as children construct their understanding, they interact with their environment
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational Stage
4 stages of Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
Sensorimotor
Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; birth to age 2
Preoperational
Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; preschool years; 2-7 years
Concrete Operational
Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; 7-11 years
Formal Operational
Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; 11-adulthood
Schemes
These are a script of the events as they happen in a certain activity of scenario (lunch at McDonald's, a birthday party, a picnic in the park, drop the cup game)
Mentally Construct
As a child experiences various scenarios (schemes) they do this and form a schema to better organize and understand the event
Actions or Mental Representations
Schemes in Piaget's theory are this or this that organize knowledge
Assimilation
This occurs when children incorporate new information into their existing schemes
Accommodation
This occurs when children adjust their schemes to fit new information and experiences
Organization
This is grouping of isolated behaviors and thought into a higher-order system
Equilibration
This is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next
Equilibration
This is when conflict or differences occur in schemes; children must re-edjust their thought processes and behaviors to form a new scheme
Higher Ground
Assimilation and accommodation always take children to this
Equilibration
For piaget, the motivation for change in an internal search for this
New Way of Thinking
As old schemes are adjusted and new schemes are developed, the child reorganizes the old and new schemes to this
Physical, Motoric Actions
During the sensorimotor stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (seeing and hearing) with these 2 kinds of actions
Reflexive
At the beginning of the sensorimotor stage, newborns have little more than these patterns with which to work
Sensorimotor Patterns
By the end of the sensorimotor stage, 2 year olds can these kind of complex patterns and use primitive symbols
Simple-Reflexes
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; first month, rooting, etc.
First Habits and Primary Circular Reaction
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 1-4 months; finding and reacting with a body part
Habit
This is a scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus; part of the 2nd sub-stage of sensorimotor stage)
Circular Reaction
This is a repetitive action (finding a food and sucking on it); this involved finding and reacting with a body part
Secondary Circular Reactions
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 4-8 months; infant becomes more object oriented; shaking a rattle; first it happens by accident and the purposely
Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 8-12 months; infant coordinates vision and touch, hand and eye; this involves intentionality; infant might use one toy to get another toy
Intentionality
In one of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; coordination of secondary circular reactions; this involves this which means an infant might use one toy to get another toy
Tertiary Circular Reaction, Novelty and Curiosity
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 12-18 months; schemes in which the infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, doing new things to them;
Tertiary Circular Reaction, Novelty, and Curiosity
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; Piaget says this this stage is the start for human curiosity and interest in novelty
Internalization of Schemes
One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 18-24 months; this is when infant develops ability to use primitive symbols (mimicking opening and closing of a box by opening and closing the mouth)
Object Permanence
This is the understanding that objects and events continue to exist when they cannot be seen, heard or touched
Object Permanence
Before this is achieved if you hide a toy under a blanket the infant does not look for it but they assume that it's gone
Object Permanence
After this is achieved an infant will search for an object after is is under the blanket
Language
This is a form of communication, whether spoken, written or signed, that is based on a system of symbols
Community
Language consists of the words used by this and the rules for varying and combining them
Human Languages
All of these have some common characteristics including infinite generativity and organizational rules
Infinite Generativity
This is the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
Language
The idea of infinite generativity makes this a highly creative enterprise
Phonology
This is the sound system of a language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined
Phenome
This is the basic unit of sound in a language (a, e, i, u, l)
Morphology
This refers to the units of meaning involved in word formation; a morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning
Morpheme
This is a minimal unit of meaning
Caregivers
Babies produce sounds from birth; the purpose of these sounds is to attract the attention from these people (survival)
Crying
This sound can signal distress, but many there are many versions (hunger, pain, wet, etc)
Cooing
This sound is usually made while in interaction with caregiver; oo sounds (first at 1-2 months)
Babbling
This sound is made around 6 months (bababa, dadada)
Gestures
These are showing and pointing at 8-12 months; may wave bye bye, nod yes and no; deaf infants babble with their hands and fingers at about the same age as hearing children
Citizens of the World
Patricia Kuhl demonstrated that from birth up to about 6 months infants are this; they recognize when sounds change most of the time no matter what language the syllables come from
Native Tongue
Patricia Kuhl; after children are "citizens of the world" over the next 6 months they get better at perceiving changes of sound in their own language and gradually lose the ability to recognize changes in sounds that don't exist in this
8 and 12 Months
Between these months, infants often indicate their first understanding of words
10 and 15 Months
Between these months, infants usually utter their first word
Animal
Usually the first word is an important family member of this
50 Words
On average, infants understand about this many words at 13 months, but can't say this many words until about 18 months
Receptive
In infancy, this kind of vocabulary (words understood) considerably exceeds spoken vocabulary (used words)
2-Word Utterances
By the time children are 18-24 months, they usually utter these; to supplement they rely heavily on gestures, tone and context
Telegraphic Speech
This is the use of short and precise words without grammatical markers (mommy give tommy ice cream)
2 and 3 Years
Children create sentences by this age
Spoken Words
During preschool years children become sensitive to the sounds of these; they notice rhymes, enjoy poems, make up silly names for things and clap along with syllables
Plurals and Past Tense
During preschool years children start using these things, sometimes inappropriately, but this shows they understand the morphological ruled (he runned; two childs)
Bilingualism
This is the ability to speak two languages has a positive effect on children's cognitive development
Bilingualism
This helps with control of attention, concept formation, analytical reasoning, cognitive flexibility and cognitive complexity
Second Language
Learning this is more readily accomplished by children than by adolescents or adults; adults make faster initial progress, but their eventual success is not as great as childrens
Noam Chompsky
He argues that humans are biologically pre-wired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way
Language Acquisition Device
Noam Chompsky says that children are born with this device
Language Acquisition Device
This is a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics
Language Milestones
Supporters of Chompsky's LAD cite uniformity of these across cultures; this is a theoretical construct
Recent Acquisition
Language, in evolutionary perspective, is this; it have humans an enormous edge over other species, and increase human survival
Critical Period
This is a fixed time period in which certain experiences can have a long-lasting effect on development
Critical Period
This is a period of readiness after which learning is more difficult
Language
Most babies learn this by a certain age if they are to learn to speak at all
Genie
This is the name of the 13 year old girl who had been locked away in isolation during childhood and could not speak or stand erect
Behavioral View
This view of language believes that language represents chains of responses acquired through reinforcement
Syntax
Despite what the behavioral view, research indicates that children first learn this of their native language even if they are not reinforced in doing so
Extensive Orderliness
The behavioral view fails to explain this of a language; each child has a unique history of reinforcement, yet development of speech seems to be quite similar
Behavioral View
This view is no longer considered a viable explanation of how children acquire language
Conversation; socioeconomic
The quantity of this that parents direct to their children is linked with the child's vocabulary growth; it is also linked to this status
Language and Thought
There is increasing evidence that these 2 things are not part of a single, automated cognitive system, but rather evolved as separate modular, biologically prepared components of the mind
8.5 months
Crawling develops by this age
Slopes
At first the baby will attempt to crawl down these, but eventually they will use caution when faced with steps or a drop off; they use this discrimination with walking to turn around and descend the stairs backwards (using all fours)
Locomotion
This and postural control are closely linked; the baby must be able to both balance on one leg as the other is swung forward and to shift the weight from one leg to another
Neural
These pathways that control leg alternation are in place from a very early age; possibly birth or before; babies can usually walk by their first birthday
Experience
Practice is important in learning to walk; this is an example of behavior tied to this; babies love to walk-no destination in mind-just to walk
Environment
In the 2nd year, now that baby has gained independence through walking, they should be given freedom to exercise some of that independence in order to explore this
Fine Motor Skills
Infants have hardly any of these skills; they are working on gross motor skills which will facilitate this development
Touch
4 month old infants rely greatly on this to determine how they will grip an object; 8 month olds rely on vision
Vision
While 4 month olds rely on touch to determine where to grip an object, 8 month olds use this
Sensation and Perception
This occurs when sensory information interacts with sensory receptors (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste)
Sensation
This is the picking up of sensory information and carrying it to the brain via action potentials in sensory receptors
Action Potentials
Sensation is the picking up of sensory info and carrying it to the brain via these in sensory receptors
Perception
This is the interpretation of sensory info; we see, hear, taste, smell and feel with our brain
Brain
We see, hear, taste, smell, and feel with this
Nerves, Muscles and Lens
At birth, these 3 things of the eye are still developing
Far Away
Newborns cannot see small things that are this
Green and Red
At birth babies can distinguish between these 2 colors; all of the cones function by the second month
Depth and Distance
The first few months being the ability to use cues for these 2 things (vision)
Binocular Vision
This develops by 3-4 months (cues for distance and depth)
Patterned Displays; Non-Patterned
2-3 month olds prefer to look at these displays as opposed to these displays
Normal Human Face
2-3 month olds prefer to look at this kind of face as opposed to ones with scrambled features
Plain Circles
2-3 month olds prefer to look at a bulls-eye target or black and white stripes
Perceptual Constancy
This is the idea that sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains constant
Perceptual Constancy
This allows the infant to perceive the world as stable
Size Constancy
This is the recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes (the farther away the object is, the smaller it appears)
3 months
Babies as young as this age show size constancy; however it's still developing
Binocular Vision
With this kind of vision between 3 and 5 months size constancy improves and it develops until 10-11 years
Shape Constancy
This is the recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes
3 Months
Babies as young as this age have shape constancy; not fully developed
Elanor Gibson and Richard Walk
These 2 people tested depth perception by constructing a visual cliff and had mother coerce infants to crawl onto glass; most infants chose to remain on the shallow side, indicating that they could perceive depth