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76 terms

Biology Packet 2: Principles in Ecology

Combo with Ch 3 The Biosphere and 3 others
STUDY
PLAY
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
ecology
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
biosphere
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
species
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
population
assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
community
Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
ecosystem
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
biome
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph
producer
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
photosynthesis
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
chemosynthesis
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
heterotroph
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph
consumer
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
herbivore
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
carnivore
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
omnivore
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
detritivore
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter.
decomposer
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food chain
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
food web
step in a food chain or food web
trophic level
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
ecological pyramid
Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
biomass
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
evaporation
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
transpiration
chemical substance that an organism requires to live
nutrient
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
nitrogen fixation
conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas
denitrification
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
limiting nutrient
an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
algal bloom
the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interactions the organisms have with their environments are studied
ecology
the portion of Earth that supports life
biosphere
the living factors in an organism's environment
biotic factors
the nonliving factors in an organism's environment
abiotic factors
individual organisms of a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time
population
a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time
biological community
a biological commuunity and all of the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
ecosystem
a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities
biome
where an organism lives
habitat
a role or position that an organism has in its environment
niche
the act of one organism consuming an other organism for food
predation
the close relationship that forms when two or more species live together
symbiosis
a relationship between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from each other
mutualism
a relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither hurt nor helped
commensalism
a relationship where one organism benefits at the expense of another
parasitism
an organism that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food
autotroph
an organism that gets its energy requirements from consuming other organisms
heterotroph
an organism which eat fragments of dead matter in an ecosystem and returns nutrients to the environment
detritivore
step in a food chain or web
trophic level
a simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem
food chain
a model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathyways in which energy flows through a group of organisms
food web
the total mass of living matter at a trophic level
biomass
anything that has mass and takes up space
matter
a chemical substance that an organism must obtain from its environment
nutrient
the exchange of matter through the biosphere
biogeochemical cycle
the process of capturing and converting nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants
nitrogen fixation
the conversion by bacteria of fixed nitrogen compounds to nitrogen gas
denitrification
an organizer that can make its own food
producer
an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
consumer
a consumer that eats only plants
herbivore
a consumer that eats only animals
carnivore
a consumer that eats both plants and animals
omnivore
a carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
scavenger
an organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
decomposer
a series of events in which one organism eats another
food chain
the pattern of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem
food web
a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
energy pyramid
producers
What organism is the source of all the food in an ecosystem?
all the living and non-living things that interact in an area
ecosystem
the place where an organism lives and that provides the things it needs; (food, water, shelter, etc)
habitat
a living part of an ecosystem (plants, animals)
biotic factor
a non-living part of an ecosystem (water, sunlight, oxygen, temperature, soil)
abiotic factor
a group of organisms that are similar and reproduce fertile offspring
species
all the members of one species in a particular area
population
all the different populations that live together in an area
community
the study of how living things interact with each other and with their environment
ecology