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Unit 7: Memory
Terms in this set (60)
What is memory?
Our capacity to acquire, store and retrieve the information and habits that guide our behavior
What are the two types of memory?
Explicit and implicit
What is explicit memory?
Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously and intentionally remembered
What is episodic memory?
Firsthand experiences, or episodes, that we have on a daily basis
What is semantic memory?
Our knowledge of facts and concepts about the world
What is a recall test?
A measure of explicit memory that involves retrieving information that has been previously learned
What is a recognition memory test?
A measure of memory that involves determining whether information has been seen or learned before
What is relearning?
Assess how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten
What is implicit memory?
The influence of experience on behavior, even if the individual is not aware of those influences
What is procedural memory?
Our often unexplainable knowledge of how to do things
What are classical conditioning effects?
We learn, often without effort or awareness, to associate neutral stimuli with other stimulus, which creates a naturally occurring response
What is priming?
Changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequently or recently
What is sensory memory?
The brief storage of sensory information
What is an iconic memory?
Visual sensory memory
What is an echoic memory?
Auditory sensory memory
What is eidetic imagery?
What is short-term memory?
Where small amounts of information can be temporarily kept for more than a few seconds but usually for less than one minute
What is working memory?
Processes that we use to make sense of, modify, interpret, and store information i STM
What is central executive?
The part of working memory that directs attention and processing
What is maintenance rehearsal?
The process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in memory
What is chunking?
The process of organizing information into smaller groupings, thereby increasing the number of items that can be held in STM
What is long-term memory?
Memory storage that can hold information for days, months, and years
What is encoding?
The process by which we place our experiences into memory
What is elaborative encoding?
Process new information in ways that make it more relevant or meaningful
What is the spacing effect?
The fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs closer together or at the same time
What is overlearning?
Continuing to practice and study even when we think that we have mastered the material
What is retrieval?
The process of reactivating information that has been stored in memory
What is tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
We are certain that we know something that we are trying to recall but cannot quite come up with it
What is state-dependent learning?
Superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding
What is the primacy effect?
Tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list
What is the recency effect?
The tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list
What is retroactive interference?
When learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that was learned earlier
What is proactive interference?
When earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later
What are categories?
Networks associated memories that have features in common with each other
What is a prototype?
The member of the category that is most average or typical of the category
What are schemas?
Patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information
What is long-term potentiation (LPT)?
Refers to the strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons as result of frequent stimulation
What is a period of consolidation?
The period of time in which LTP occurs and in which memories are stored
What is a hippocampus?
Preprocessor and elaborator of information
What are the cerebellum and amygdala?
Concentrating on implicit and emotional memories
What are cognitive biases?
Errors in memory or judgement that are caused by the inappropriate use of cognitive processes
What is the misinformation effect?
Errors in memory that occur when new information influences existing memories
What is source monitoring?
The ability to accurately identify the source of a memory
What is the sleeper effect?
An attitude change that occurs over time when we forget the source of information
What is overconfidence?
The tendency for people to be too certain about their ability to accurately remember events and to make judgements
What is flashbulb memory?
A vivid emotional memory of an unusual event that people believe they remember very well
What is schemata?
Mental representations of the world that are formed and adjusted using the processes of assimilation and accommodation as a person experiences life
What is confirmation bias?
The tendency to verify and confirm our existing memories rather than to challenge and disconfirm them
What is functional fixedness?
When people's schemas prevent them from using an object in new and nontraditional ways
What is salient?
They attract our attention
What is cognitive accessibility?
People's first person perspective leads them to overestimate the degree to which they played a role in an event or project
What are heuristics?
Information-processing strategies that are useful in many cases but may lead to errors when misapplies
What are algorithms?
Recipe-style information-processing strategies that guarantee a correct answer at all times
What is representativeness heuristic?
We base our judgments on information that seems to represent, or match, what we expect will happen, while ignoring other potentially more relevant statistical information
What is gambler's fallacy?
People who see a flipped coin come up "heads" five times in a row will frequently predict, and perhaps even wager money, that "tails" will be next
What is probability?
The likelihood of something happening
What is availability heuristic?
The tendency to make judgments of the frequency or likelihood that an event occurs on the basis of the ease with which it can be retrieved from memory
What is counterfactual thinking?
The tendency to think about and experience events according to "what might have been"
What is psi-gamma?
Those phenomena that involve anomalous information transfer, like ESP, clairvoyance, and remote viewing
What is psi-kappa?
Those phenomena that involve anomalous transfer of matter, such as psychokinesis or telekinesis, or even anomalous transfer of energy
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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