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19 terms

Glencoe Biology Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Glencoe Texas Biology 2004
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adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group from ATP, results in release of energy used in biological reactions, made of adenosine and 2 phosphate groups
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy-containing molecule made of adenosine and 3 phosphate groups which are attached to each other with high-energy bonds
Calvin cycle
series of reactions that uses carbon dioxide and products from the light-dependent reaction (NADPH and ATP) to produce glucose, is light-independent, 1 glucose molecule is produced for every 6 carbon dioxide molecules
chlorophyll
pigment that absorbs most wavelengths of light except green
electron transport chain
series of proteins embedded in thylakoid membrane along which energized electrons are transported; energy is released as electrons are passed from molecule to molecule
light-dependent reaction
reaction that requires light to occur. In photosynthesis: light energy is transferred to water which gets split into oxygen, 2 electrons, and 2 hydrogen ions; oxygen diffuses into atmosphere, NADP+ carries electrons and becomes NADPH, ATP is also created
light-independent reaction
reaction that does not require light. In photosynthesis: uses NADPH and ATP from light-dependent reaction with carbon dioxide to produce glucose
NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
stores electron energy until it is transferred, has a phosphate group
photolysis
process that occurs during light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, uses light to split 2 water molecules into oxygen, 2 hydrogen ions, and 2 electrons
photosynthesis
process by which carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose; has 2 phases (light-dependent and light-independent)
pigment
molecule that absorbs specific wavelengths of light
aerobic
describing a chemical reaction that requires the presence of oxygen
alcoholic fermentation
used by yeast and some bacteria, anaerobic, uses pyruvic acid from glycolysis to produce carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, also produces 2 ATP
anaerobic
describing a chemical reaction that does not require the presence of oxygen
cellular respiration
process by which glucose is broken down in the mitochondria to produce carbon dioxide, water, heat, and ATP; occurs in 3 stages (glycolysis, citric acid cycle/Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain)
citric acid cycle
also known as Kreb's cycle, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, aerobic, produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule, 6 carbon dioxide molecules are released, NADH and FADH₂ are formed
glycolysis
occurs in cytoplasm, anaerobic, series of chemical reactions in which glucose molecule is broken down, uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvic acid
lactic acid fermentation
used when enough oxygen is not available (during heavy exercise), anaerobic, converts pyruvic acid from glycolysis to lactic acid, produces 2 ATP
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
stores electron energy until it is transferred, does not have a phosphate group