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Lecture Notes for Exam 1
Terms in this set (64)
God would only appoint a leader that he thought resembled the same powers of his own
Who was the model absolutist?
Louis the Fourteenth (XIV)
Who was known as the "Sun King"?
Louis the Fourteenth (XIV)
When was St. Bartholome's Day Massacre?
August 24, 1576
How many protestants were killed in St. Bartholome's Day Massacre?
What was the significance of Baroque music?
To embody the absolute monarchy and its togetherness
Is absolutism the same as totalitarianism?
What did "paternal" mean during this time?
Louis acted as a father figure to his subjects
Could absolutists arbitrarily take people's property and traditions, such as rituals or certain professions not having to pay taxes?
What did Louis do to raise money for the army?
Sold offices to people who were of common worth then allowed them to pass on their office to their children
Even after the king (Louis) is gone, does the state remain?
Why does Locke believe the state exists?
To protect people's property
What did mercantilism advocate for?
A nation should export more than it imported and thereby accumulate bullion (especially gold) to make up the difference
Theory of trade espoused by the major European powers from roughly 1500 to 1800
Adam Smith opposed mercantilism. What did he call for instead?
What was the life of an artisan like?
They had to go through apprenticeship to learn the skill, then they earned a monopoly for trade for their area
Describe Baroque style
Dynamic style intended to elicit emotional response; massive, imposing structures with sweeping facades, large buildings that give a sense of permanence
Explain the what feeling paternalism gave the citizens
You are part of the monarch's family
What were the vulnerabilities of absolutism?
Limits on despotic power in divine right, warfare and drain on state coffers, frustrations of nobility and bourgeoisie over privileges
What did enlightenment men and women think of themselves as?
Where did the majority of enlightenment thinkers come from?
France and England
How did French intellectuals look to England?
As a model
How was the enlightenment era contradictory?
The slave trade was occuring
The inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance
What is the motto of the enlightenment?
"Have the courage to use your own understanding"
Where did Locke say power came from?
The state of nature
How did Voltaire feel about Locke?
He loved him and thought his ideas were rational, he learned more about it when he was exiled to England
How did Voltaire feel about Britain?
He loved that Britain was so engaged with commerce
How did Voltaire feel about France?
He hated that France was tied down by etiquette, who has status, etc.
Was Locke's work available for the public in France?
The Case of Jean Calas
-Calas bids farewell to his family in 1762
-Treatise on Toleration appears in 1763
-Voltaire brought this case to the court of public opinion
-Crime of the 18th century
-Calas' son died, there was an investigation, they said someone broke in and killed him but they later retracted that
-If his son had committed suicide, he would have been stripped naked and dragged through the streets since suicide was such a sin
-Calas was tortured for a confession, but he stood firm
-Voltaire did his own investigation of Calas
-Reformist edge of the enlightenment
What was enlightenment's affect on women's rights?
There was none
What did Jean-Jacques Rosseau write?
The Social Contract and the Paradox of the State of Nature
What year was The Social Contract written?
How did Jean-Jacques Rosseau feel about the revolution?
He was for it. He was associated with radical republican ideals
What did Jean-Jacques Rosseau associate the absolute monarchy with?
"Vain, pampered" aristocratic women
How did Jean-Jacques Rosseau feel about women?
He thought they were not equal to men and therefore could not take part in government
Separate Spheres Ideology
-Women differ from men by "nature"
-Different education, different social roles
-Denied women civil rights
Large-scale agricultural operation on which slaves were put to work systematically producing marketable crops such as rice, tobacco, sugar, and cotton
What American cities were centers of enlightenment?
Boston and Philadelphia
Does slavery exist in the Arab-Islamic world?
What did the French Revolution end?
The old regime in France
What was the first year of the French Revolution?
Was the French Revolution extremely violent?
When was Bastille?
July 14, 1789
Causes of the revolution
-Fiscal crisis of the monarchy
-Exacerbated by Bad Harvest in 1788-89
-Popular critique of Louis the Sixteenth (XVI) and Marie Antoinette
What did the French Revolution inspire?
Who was part of the reason the treasury was having problems?
Who was also part of the fiscal problem?
Louis the Sixteenth (XVI)
What was Antoinette accused of doing sexually?
Having incestual relationships with her brother and having multiple relationships with men and women
What was Louis the Sixteenth (XVI) accused of sexually?
Being sexually inadequate
What was "De-Sacralization" of the monarchy?
Chipping away at sacred authority
When did the symbolic de-throning of the monarchy occur?
Way before the revolution
How did Antoinette act towards the poor?
What were "Rousseaus of the Gutter" willing to do?
Publish things that degraded the monarch
When was the Tennis Court Oath?
Who was the 1st estate?
The clergy: people who worked in the church
Who was the 2nd estate?
The nobility: the king and queen, nobles of the sword, princess of royal blood, dukes, marquises, counts, viscounts, barons, knights, and nobles of the robe
Who was the 3rd estate?
When was the March of the Fishwives?
When was the Flight to Varennes?
June 20, 1791
What did people believe declaring war on Austria would do?
Help spread ideas about the revolution
How was Louis the Sixteenth (XVI) depicted in photos?
What is universal male suffrage?
All adult males should be able to vote
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
IDs for Exam 1
IDs for Exam 2
IDs for Quiz 11/17
IDs for Final Exam
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