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Pathology - Morphologic Patterns of Acute Inflammation
Terms in this set (29)
The morphologic hallmarks of all acute inflammatory reactions are (3)
1-dilation of small blood vessels,
2-slowing of blood flow,
3- and accumulation of leukocytes and fluid in the extravascular tissue
REVIEW Acute inflammation - process and end
vascular changes, neutrophil recruitment, mediators
Resolution - clearance of injury stimuli and inflammatory cells and replace cells = normal
Pus formation + healing = fibrosis
REVIEW Chronic inflammation - process and end
Angiogenesis, mononuclear cell inflammation, fibrosis
Serous inflammation and example
a form of acute inflammation marked by an outpouring of a thin fluid derived from plasma or mesothelium. - Skin blister
Accumulation of fluid in bodily cavities is called
fibrinogen passes the vascular barrier, fibrin is formed and deposited in the extracellular space.
When does a fibrinous exudate form and in what kind of inflammation does it usually form?
when the vascular leaks are large or there is a local procoagulant stimulus (e.g., cancer cells).
Forms in inflammation of the lining of body cavities such as the meninges, pericardium and pleura.
Fibrinous exudates may be removed by
fibrinolysis by macrophages
REVIEW If the fibrin is not removed it may
stimulate the ingrowth of fibroblasts and blood vessels and thus lead to scarring.
Fibrinious inflammation in the pericardial sac leads to
opaque fibrous thickening of the pericardium and epicardium and in extensive fibrosis- obliteration of the pericardial space.
Suppurative or purulent inflammation and an example
is pyogenic (caused by bacteria such as staphylococci) contains neutrophils, liquefactive necrosis, and edema fluid.
a feature of acute inflammation. Is a mixture of the fluid exudate, cell exudate including dead and dying cells and (sometimes) microorganisms
localized collections of purulent inflammatory tissue caused by suppuration buried in a tissue, an organ, or a confined space produced by deep seeding of pyogenic bacteria into a tissue.
REVIEW The central region of an abcess is
a mass of necrotic leukocytes and tissue cells.
What can be seen around the necrotic center of an abcess and outside the region indicating chronic inflammation and repair?
a zone of preserved neutrophils around it
outside it: vascular dilation and parenchymal and fibroblastic proliferation
a local defect, or excavation, of the surface of an organ or tissue that is produced by the sloughing (shedding) of inflamed necrotic tissue
REVIEW Ulceration only occurs
when there is tissue necrosis and resultant inflammation exist on or near a surface.
Ulcers are common in:
mouth, stomach, intestines, genitourinary tract, the skin
In what type of ulcer does both acute and chronic inflammation occur?
acute stage: intense polymorphonuclear infiltration and vascular dilation in the margins of the defect.
Chronic stage: margins and base of the ulcer develop fibroblastic proliferation, scarring, and the accumulation of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Special types of inflammation
catarrhal - mucus
fibrinous - fibrin
haemorrhagic - blood
suppurative or purulent - pus, may form abcess or empyema
gengrenous or necrotising - combination of necrosis and bacterial infection
Possible outcomes of acute inflammation 1
Resolution - minimal cell death, occurs in tissue with high regeneration, rapid destruction of causal agent, removal of debris for drainage
Possible outcomes of acute inflammation 2
Suppuration - the formation of pus due to persistence of stimulus, usually infective pyogenic organism, causing abscess
Possible outcomes of acute inflammation 3
Repair with organisation and progressive
fibrosis due to excess cell death and tissue damage, happens where low capacity for regeneration, slow destruction of causal agent, Poor removal of exudate and debris
Possible outcomes of acute inflammation 4
Progression to chronic inflammation due to
Inability to remove the causative agent
such as tuberculosis or an indigestible substance
What are the beneficial effects of inflammation?
Dilution of toxins
Entry of antibodies
Fibrin formation and isolation of micro-organisms
Delivery of nutrients and oxygen
Stimulation of immune system
Transport of drugs
What are the harmful effects of inflammation?
Digestion of normal tissue
Loss of normal function
Inappropriate or excessive inflammatory response
REVIEW What are the Systemic effects of inflammation?
1. Pyrexia - Endogenous pyrogens acting on hypothalamus (SPP 10)
2. Constitutional symptoms-malaise, anorexia, nausea
3. Weight loss - Negative nitrogen balance (NB TB = consumption)
4. Haematological changes- Raised ESR with increased blood viscosity = Leucocytosis, Anaemia
-is a negative mediator of inflammation
-synthesised from L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase NOS)
-Role in vascular and cellular elements of inflammation
-But is also microbicidal
How do you end inflammation?
Restore normal permeability
Drain oedema fluid
Uptake of fluid by macrophages
Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils
Phagocytosis of debris
Removal of macrophages
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