Fundamentals - Ch. 8 Communication
Terms in this set (42)
When does communication occur?
when one person sends a message and another person receives it, processes it, and indicates that the message has been received
Two types of communication-
nonverbal and verbal
What type of process is the communication process?
continual circular process
What is verbal communication?
spoken or written words
What is nonverbal communication?
without words (body language)
What are some examples of nonverbal communication?
gestures, eye contact, body posture, intonation, general appearance
Is it possible for a patient's nonverbal communication to not be congruent with verbal communication?
Yes. For example, your patient could verbalize that he/she was in no pain, but be grabbing knee and grimacing. Always observe your patients.
What are possible factors that could affect communication?
cultural differences, past experiences, emotions and moods, attitude of the individual
What are some cultural differences that could affect communication?
personal space, eye contact, meaning of words, cultural norms, religious beliefs
How we perceive what is communicated to us depends on
cultural values, level of education, familiarity with the topic, occupation, previous life experiences
Anxiety, fear, and pain are often expressed by what?
What may affect how a message is received?
highly aware and alert
recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli
effective or curative
patient at focus; essential in providing compassionate and coordinated care based on respect for patient preferences, values, and needs
communication that is focused on the patient's needs
effort to encourage the patient to continue when more information is needed on a topic
a relationship of mutual trust
keeping information private, must be maintained for trust to endure
Introduction, situation, background, assessment, recommendation, and read back
What should a handoff report include?
Patient's name, age, changes in conditions; current concerns; treatments, and responses to therapies (should use ISBAR-R format)
requires concentration and focused energy; uses all senses to interpret verbal and nonverbal messages; listens for feelings; blocks out distractions, maintains eye contact
keeping attention focused on the communication task at hand; continually check to see that the patient is still the topic of the interaction
Adjusting communication style
patient's style and level of usual communication should be considered when interaction; adjust to the patient's pace when speaking the message and when receiving.
Therapeutic Communication Techniques
promoting communication between sender and receiver, obtaining feedback, focusing on the communicator, using silence and open ended questions, restating the message, clarifying, using therapeutic touch, give general leads, offer self, give info, looking at alternatives, summarizing
What are blocks to communication?
Changing the subject, offering false reassurance, giving advice, making defensive comments, asking prying or probing questions, not listening attentively, using cliches
Instead of asking a patient "why?" ...
Try .. "Can you tell me more about..." This is open ended question communication technique
Why should you not give a patient false reassurance?
Because we never know what may realistically happen.
feeling of sorrow for your patient's misfortune
difficulty expressing or understanding language
Communicating with the Hearing-Impaired
Speak distinctly, do not shout, speak slowly, grasp attention, maintain good distance (2 1/2 to 4 feet), watch for nonverbal feedback, use short sentences, paraphrase for clarification
Communicating with the elderly
assess for hearing deficits, assess for visual deficits, give time for elders to formulate responses, wait for and answer to one question before asking another, obtain feedback
put yourself in their shoes; understanding the situation from another person's perspective
Communicating with children
approach at eye level, use a calm, friendly voice, keep a parent in the room when possible, use short sentences, give simple explanations and demonstrations, allow child to handle equipment
Communicating with people from other cultures
determine language used, obtain interpreter if necessary, enlist the aid of a family member if appropriate, give printed materials if available and answer questions, beware of cultural differences (eye contact, personal space)
Communicating with Health care team members
nurses' notes, physician's orders and progress notes, dietitian's notes, OT, PT, and speech therapy notes, shift report, radiology and laboratory findings
When telephoning physician
always have patient data on hand: lab. data, vital signs, urinary output, medication received; keep chart handy, know allergies and perform quick assessment before calling, prepare a concise problem statement, document the call and physician's response
authorize another person to do something; when doing this always confirm that the person clearly understands the tasks you are asking to be completed
ability to use a computer for communication is essential for today's nurse --- transmits requests for laboratory, dietary, radiology, PT, respiratory therapy, med orders, supplies, update care plans, computerized form of charting
Communication in the home and community
essential to state when instructions are about to be given so active listen can occur, leave written step by step instructions with pt when possible, office and clinic nurses often assess patients who call in to see if they have an urgent need for medical attention