a balanced optimal level of cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility, as well as the achievement and maintenance of ideal body weight.
The amount of movement that can be accomplished at a joint (an articulation), such as the knee or shoulder, and is usually referred to as the "range of motion about a joint."
Consisting of two dimensions, (1) Body fat (adipose tissue); and (2) fat-free weight (muscle, bones, blood, organs, etc)
The bodies primary reserve of stored energy both in fat (adipose) cells located between skin and muscles all over the body, as well as within skeletal muscles
Narrow thin walled vessels where the exchange of gases, nutrients, and cellular waste products occurs between the blood and the cells of the body.
A network of vessels through which the blood flows back to the heart to continue the cyclic blood flow.
Freshly oxygenated blood
Received from the Left side of the Heart through the pulmonary veins then flows to the left Ventricle
The contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
The percentage of the total volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of Diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
Breathing faster when the muscles are spent (Can no longer produce enough ATP Areobically)
The metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy production with requiring oxygen, sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system, or anaerobic glucose system, it produce lactic acid as a by-product.
Golgi Tendon Organ
A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force
Increase in the diameter of blood vessels. dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries) leading to increase blood flow to a part of a body.
Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the vessels.
Systolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions
Diastolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes between contractions
Increase the intensity, frequency and duration beyond what is normally produced; Must overload the muscle to build strength; It is progressive: once adaptation to overload occurs, parameters must be increased again
Specificity of training
A key concept of periodization that states that for an individual to become proficient at any given movement, that movement must be trained and practiced; a specific demand (i.e., exercise) made on the body will result in a specific response by the body
Nerve cells that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract; neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and glands
a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the end of nerve fibers in the somatic AND parasympathetic nervous systems and is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the body
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
The form of endoplasmic reticulation where calcium is stored to be used for muscle activation; located in striated muscle fibers
Sliding filament theory
The Theory of how muscles generate force, how Actin and Myosin proteins and ATP interact to cause muscle contraction
The bridge between myosin and Actin; when myosin heads attach to actin during contraction (step 2 in contraction cycle)
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens, and is overcome by a resistance
an increase in cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance (strength) training
is both psychological and physiological, Beliving that you cannot lift a weight causes lack of confidence which physiologically reduces our ability to lift
depletion of bodily fluids, a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance
Recoverable elongation of connective tissue; the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed
Fibers in muscle tissues which protect against too much stress. Bouncing stretches are not good. Slow stretch to induce tightness and hold 10-15 sec. 4 reps.