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83 terms

Exercise Physiology

Optimum Fitness, physiology of the cardiopulmonary (cardiovascular) system, energy productions in the cells, cardiopulmonary response to exercise, guidelines for cardiovascular fitness, basic Neuromuscular anatomy and physiology. Adaptions to strength training, guidelines for strength training, and flexibility Training.
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Exercise Physiology
The study of the way cells and tissues of the body function during exercise
Physiology
processes and functions of an organism
Optimum Fitness
a balanced optimal level of cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility, as well as the achievement and maintenance of ideal body weight.
Cardiorespiratory
of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions
Muscular Strength
The amount of force a muscle can exert
Flexibility
The amount of movement that can be accomplished at a joint (an articulation), such as the knee or shoulder, and is usually referred to as the "range of motion about a joint."
Body Composition
Consisting of two dimensions, (1) Body fat (adipose tissue); and (2) fat-free weight (muscle, bones, blood, organs, etc)
Triglycerides
The bodies primary reserve of stored energy both in fat (adipose) cells located between skin and muscles all over the body, as well as within skeletal muscles
Cardiopulmonary
of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions
Cardiopulmonary System
a transport network
Cardio
refers to the heart
3 kinds of blood vessels
Arteries, Capillaries, Veins
Arteries
Carry blood with fresh oxygen (O2) away from the heart to be delivered to cells and tissue
Capillaries
Narrow thin walled vessels where the exchange of gases, nutrients, and cellular waste products occurs between the blood and the cells of the body.
Veins
A network of vessels through which the blood flows back to the heart to continue the cyclic blood flow.
The upper chamber of the Heart
Atria
The lower chamber of the Heart
Ventricles
Venous Blood
Received by the Right side of the Heart through the Veins
Freshly oxygenated blood
Received from the Left side of the Heart through the pulmonary veins then flows to the left Ventricle
Circulatory patterns
Pulmonary and Systemic
Rhythmic pattern phases
Systole and Diastole
Systole
The contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
Diastole
The relaxation phase of the heartbeat
Cardiac Output
The amount of blood that FLOWS from each ventricle in one minute
Stroke Volume
The amount of blood PUMPED from each ventricle each time the heart beats
Ejection Fraction
The percentage of the total volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of Diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction
Oxygen extraction
The amount of oxygen taken from hemoglobin
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
The energy molecule or the bodies energy source
Aerobic
with oxygen, depending on free oxygen or air
Mitochondria
The cell structure that is the site of aerobic energy production
Anaerobic
without oxygen, living or active in the absence of free oxygen
Ischemia
Insuficient oxygen to the heart, can cause a stroke
Angina Pectoris
Pain and/or pressure in the chest due to Ischemia
Myocardial Infarction
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
Substances to produce ATP supply
Fat (fatty acids) and Carbohydrates (glucose)
Glycogen
A molecule made up of chains of glucose stored in muscles and liver.
Creatine Phosphate
A molecule that can be quickly broken apart to help produce ATP
Kilocalorie (kcal)
The unit of energy used in exercise science
Phosphagens
creatine phosphate and ATP together
Lactic Acid
the by-products of anaerobic ATP production
Hyperventilation
Breathing faster when the muscles are spent (Can no longer produce enough ATP Areobically)
Enzymes
Proteins in the body used to produce ATP
VO2 Max
The total capacity to consume oxygen at the cellular level
What are the two factors of (VO2)
Cardiac Output and Oxygen Extraction
(cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max)
=Vo2max
Metabolic equivalent (MET)
The resting oxygen consumption
Heart Rate
The number of times the heart beats in one minute.
Aerobic System
with oxygen.
Anaerobic Glycolysis
The metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy production with requiring oxygen, sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system, or anaerobic glucose system, it produce lactic acid as a by-product.
Golgi Tendon Organ
A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force
Vasodilation
Increase in the diameter of blood vessels. dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries) leading to increase blood flow to a part of a body.
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the vessels.
Systolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions
Diastolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes between contractions
Overload Principle
Increase the intensity, frequency and duration beyond what is normally produced; Must overload the muscle to build strength; It is progressive: once adaptation to overload occurs, parameters must be increased again
Venous return
The amount of blood returned to the heart by the veins
Specificity of training
A key concept of periodization that states that for an individual to become proficient at any given movement, that movement must be trained and practiced; a specific demand (i.e., exercise) made on the body will result in a specific response by the body
Motor neurons
Nerve cells that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract; neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and glands
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
Acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the end of nerve fibers in the somatic AND parasympathetic nervous systems and is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the body
Neuromuscular Junction
the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
Myofibrils
Contractile protein in a muscle fiber
Contractile
capable of contracting or being contracted
Actin
one of the contractile proteins in a myofibril
Myosin
the commonest protein in muscle, contractile proteins in a myofibril
Contractile Proteins
Actin and Myosin are what kind of proteins
Sarcomeres
The repeating unit of a muscle fiber
Sarcolemma
The membrane surrounding the sarcomeres which is the functional unit of muscle fibers
Sarcoplasm
the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber
Cytoplasm
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
Sarcoplasmic reticulation
The form of endoplasmic reticulation where calcium is stored to be used for muscle activation; located in striated muscle fibers
Sliding filament theory
The Theory of how muscles generate force, how Actin and Myosin proteins and ATP interact to cause muscle contraction
Cross-bridge
The bridge between myosin and Actin; when myosin heads attach to actin during contraction (step 2 in contraction cycle)
Concentric
A contraction that involves the muscle exerting force, shortens and overcomes force
Eccentric Contraction
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens, and is overcome by a resistance
Isometric Contraction
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, but does not change in length
Motor unit
a motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
Hypertrophy
an increase in cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance (strength) training
Nervous Inhibition
is both psychological and physiological, Beliving that you cannot lift a weight causes lack of confidence which physiologically reduces our ability to lift
Dehydration
depletion of bodily fluids, a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance
Elasticity
Recoverable elongation of connective tissue; the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed
Muscle Spindles
Fibers in muscle tissues which protect against too much stress. Bouncing stretches are not good. Slow stretch to induce tightness and hold 10-15 sec. 4 reps.
Sources of ATP production
Creatine and Glycogen