22 terms

AP GOV Key Terms Unit 3: Interest Groups/PP 2016-17

Key terms for AP Gov Unit 3: Interest Groups/Public Policy
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Bipartisanship
support from both parties for policy, e.g., a bipartisan foreign policy.
Budget deficit
results when federal expenditures exceed federal revenues for a one year period.
Deficit spending
the federal government's practice of spending more money than it takes in as revenues.
Deregulation
elimination of federal regulations on private companies.
Entitlements
federal benefit payments to which recipients have a legal right, e.g., Social Security. Also known as uncontrollables.
Fiscal policy
taxing and spending policies.
Means testing
requiring that those who receive federal benefits show a need for them.
Monetary policy
Federal Reserve Board's regulation of the supply of money in circulation.
National debt
total debt owed by the federal government due to past borrowing. Also known as the public debt.
Subsidy
federal financial aid to individuals, e.g., welfare, food stamps, agricultural subsidies.
Hard Money
campaign contributions regulated and limited by the federal government that are given directly to a candidate
Soft Money
unlimited and unregulated campaign contributions to federal candidates and the national parties Supposedly for generic "party building" activities (ex get-out-the-vote drives, bumper stickers, yard signs, and "issue ads")
Political Action Committee (PAC)
officially registered fund-raising organization that represents interest groups in the political process.
527 Groups
Tax-exempt organizations created to raise money for political activities such as voter mobilization efforts and issue ads
501c Groups
Nonprofit, tax-exempt interest groups that can engage in varying levels of political activity
Super PACs
PACs may raise and spend unlimited sums of money in order to advocate for or against political candidates.
Tillman Act (1907).
the first legislation in the United States prohibiting monetary contribution to national political campaigns by corporations
Federal Election Campaign Act (1971, 1974)
increased disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns and 1974 amendments placed legal limits on the campaign contributions.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (a.k.a. McCain-Feingold Act)
banned national parties and officeholders from raising and spending "soft money," and prohibited corporations and unions from funding "electioneering communications" within 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election.
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
candidates spending money to finance their own campaigns is a form of constitutionally protected free speech through the 1st Amendment
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission (2003)
upheld most of BCRA ruling that restrictions on free speech justified by government's interest to prevent corruption in campaigns
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
ruled spending is protected speech under the 1st Amendment and the government cannot prohibit spending by corporations and labor unions to support or denounce individual candidates in elections