AP Gov Units 1-PRESENT--2016-17
Terms in this set (88)
those who follow politics and public affairs carefully.
secret ballot printed at the expense of the state.
Balancing the ticket
occurs when a presidential nominee chooses a vice presidential running mate who has different qualities in order to attract more votes for the ticket.
election to choose candidates that is open to independents, and that allows voters to choose candidates from all the parties.
local party meeting
party election to choose candidates that is closed to independents. Voters may not cross party lines.
the influence of a popular presidential candidate on the election of congressional candidates of the same party.
characteristics of populations, e.g., race, sex, income.
election of an official directly by the people rather than by an intermediary group such as the Electoral College.
election in which the people choose candidates for office.
terms of office that have a definite length of time, e.g., two years for a member of the House.
scheduling presidential primary elections early (e.g., February or March) in an election year.
difference in voting patterns for men and women, particularly in the greater tendency of the latter to vote for Democratic presidential candidates.
election in which the officeholders are chosen. Contrast with a primary election, in which only the candidates are chosen.
campaign contributions donated directly to candidates.
set of beliefs about political values and the role of government.
an officeholder who is seeking reelection.
one is not registered with a political party. Independent leaners tend to vote for candidates of one particular party, whereas pure independents have no consistent pattern of party voting.
Issue advocacy ads
ads that focus on issues and do not explicitly encourage citizens to vote for a certain candidate.
election to choose candidates that is open to independents, and in which voters may choose candidates from any one party.
a sense of affiliation that a person has with a particular political party.
a list of positions and programs that the party adopts at the national convention. Each position is called a plank.
the widely shared beliefs, values, and norms that citizens share about their government.
more votes than anyone else, but less than half
capacity to understand and influence political events
process in which one acquires his/her political beliefs.
Realigning ("critical") election
an election in which there is a long term change in party alignment
an office that is extremely likely to be won by a particular candidate or political party.
Single member district system
system in which the people elect one representative per district. With a winner-take-all rule, this system strengthens the two major parties and weakens minor parties.
campaign contributions that are not donated directly to candidates, but are instead donated to parties.
historically, the South voted solidly Democratic. However, the South is now strongly Republican
Split ticket voting
casting votes for candidates of one's own party and for candidates of opposing parties
Straight ticket voting
casting votes only for candidates of one's party.
the right to vote.
a delegate to the Democratic national convention who is there by virtue of holding an office.
a Tuesday in early March in which many presidential primaries, particularly in the South, are held.
a state that does not consistently vote either Democratic or Republican in presidential elections.
money granted by the federal government to the states for a broad purpose ( e.g., transportation) rather than for a narrow purpose (e.g., school lunch program).
money granted by the federal government to the states for a narrow purpose ( e.g., school lunch program) rather than for a broad purpose (e.g., transportation).
those who favor greater national authority rather than state authority.
Checks and balances
system in which each branch of government can limit the power of the other two branches, e.g., presidential veto of a congressional law.
gives Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states, with foreign nations, and among Indian tribes. Granted through Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution.
those held by both Congress and the states, e.g., establishing law enforcement agencies.
system in which sovereign states are only loosely tied to a central government, e.g., the US under the Articles of Confederation.
those who favor greater state authority rather than national authority.
system in which the people rule themselves.
states that Congress can exercise those powers that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out the enumerated powers, e.g., establishment of the first Bank of the United States.
those that are specifically granted to Congress in Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution, e.g., the power to tax. Also known as expressed powers.
constitutional sharing of power between a central government and state governments. Different varieties:
system in which the national government and state governments are coequal, with each being dominant within its respective sphere.
system in which both federal government and state governments cooperate in solving problems.
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states.
group of 85 essays written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay for the purpose of persuading the people of New York to adopt the Constitution.
a change in the actual wording of the Constitution. Proposed by Congress or national convention, and ratified by the states.
those that are "necessary and proper" to carry out Congress' enumerated powers, and are granted to Congress through the elastic clause.
system in which the people are rule by their representatives. Also known as representative democracy, or republic.
foreign policy powers (e.g., acquiring territory) held by the national government by virtue of its being a national government.
a change in the meaning, but not the wording, of the Constitution, e.g., through a court decisions such as Brown v. Board.
power of the courts to rule on the constitutionality of laws and government actions. Established by Marbury v. Madison, 1803.
requirements imposed by the national government upon the states.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
established the power of judicial review.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
established principle of national supremacy and validity of implied powers.
powers of the states to protect the public health, safety, morals, and welfare of the public.
principle in which ultimate political authority rests with the people.
powers held by the states through the 10th Amendment. Any power not granted to the US government is "reserved" for the states.
Separation of powers
principle in which the powers of government are separated among three branches: legislative, executive, judicial.
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
a majority greater than a simple majority of one over half, e.g., 3/5, 2/3.
Bill of Attainder Clause
Congress cannot pass a law that singles out a person for punishment without trial.
Congress can regulate trade between nations, between states, and among Indian tribes.
No state can interfere with the execution of contracts. For example, a state could not pass a law that declares all debts to be null and void.
Due Process Clause 5th Amendment
The national government must observe fair procedures when it denies a person life, liberty, or property.
Due Process Clause 14th Amendment
State governments must observe fair procedures when they deny a person life, liberty, or property.
Elastic Clause Article I
Congress can exercise powers not specifically stated in the Constitution if those powers are "necessary and proper" for carrying out its expressed powers that are specifically stated.
Equal Protection Clause 14th Amendment
States cannot unreasonably discriminate against individuals. They must treat people "equally."
Establishment Clause 1st Amendment
Congress cannot establish an "official" religion.
Ex Post Facto Clause
Congress cannot pass a law that punishes a person retroactively, i.e., after the fact. In other words, a person cannot be punished for something he/she did that was not a crime when committed.
An accused person who flees to another state must be returned to the state in which he/she allegedly committed the crime.
Free Exercise Clause 1st Amendment
Congress cannot pass laws that ban freedom of worship.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
A state must recognize the validity of the public acts, records, and court decisions of other states. For example, a state must recognize as valid the birth certificate issued by another state.
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Privileges & Immunities Clause
A state cannot unreasonably discriminate against citizens of other states.
Reserved Power Clause 10th Amendment
Any power that is not granted to the national government, or denied to the states, automatically reverts to the states.
Search & Seizure Clause 4th Amendment
The authorities do not have a general power to search and arrest individuals at any time, at any place, and in any manner; rather, they can only do so according to specified procedures that must be "reasonable."
Federal law is supreme over state law.
Takings Clause 5th Amendment
Government can take private property for a public purpose, but it must provide fair compensation to the owners of that property.