Winged Euonymus, Burning Bush
• Deciduous shrub, 8-10 ft dense, rounded form, formal "aristocratic" look.
• Leaves opposite, 2.5-7.5 cm long, medium to dark green, bright red in fall.
• Stems have ridges or "wings" (alata = winged), however, they often do not develop in this cultivar to the extent they do in the species.
• Flowers small, 6 mm across, inconspicuous, yellow-green, 4-petaled, perfect (male and female parts in same flower).
• Fruit reddish-purple, ovoid, 6-8 mm, much it falls before leaves drop.
• Sun to part shade, very adaptable plant, not particular about soil.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 (not as hardy as species). Species found in northeastern Asia to central China.
• Caution: The Nature Conservancy warns about the invasive nature of E. alatus as follows: "While it behaves well in urban areas, E. alatus planted near woodlands, mature second-growth forests, and pastures can be problematic. It has been observed escaping from cultivation in the northeast and midwest, notably in Connecticut, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. E. alatus is a threat to woodland areas, fields, and coastal scrubland because it outcompetes native species."
• alatus: winged, the shoots. 'Compactus': compact, in a relative sense, the species (E. alatus) may reach 20 ft (6 m) tall, this cultivar may attain a height of 10 ft (3 m).
Japanese Euonymus Cultivars
• Broadleaf evergreen shrub, 10-15 ft high, very dense,
• oval in full sun, more open, sprawly, in shade.
• Leaves opposite, simple, obovate to narrowly oval, 2.5-7.5 cm long, lustrous dark green, leathery, tapered at base, serrated except at base.
• Flowers greenish white, 8 mm wide, blooms in early summer.
• Pinkish-red fruit in late summer or early fall.
• Sun to heavy shade. Adaptable to varied soils. Can be heavily pruned. Very salt tolerant, well adapted to maritime conditions. Many cultivars, including variegated types which often revert to the green form, especially under excessive fertility.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (6) 7 (A hardier substitute, Zone 5, is E. kiautshovicus 'Manhattan'). Native to Japan.
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 50+ ft usually pyramidal, excurrent (dominant main leader), but variable.
• Leaves alternate, simple, fan-shaped, 3-7.5 cm long and wide, in clusters of 3-5 per spur or alternate on long shoots.
• Fall color is often bright yellow to gold. Trees often drop a major proportion of their fall foliage over a short period of time, sometimes during a single night. If there is little or no wind, this may result in a carpet of yellow leaves under trees.
• Dioecious - male and female trees; male flowers (sometimes called pollen cones) are 2.5 cm long, catkin-like, with numerous stamens loosely arranged; female flowers are long stalked, 4-5 cm, solitary, with two opposing ovules at the end of the stalk.
• "Fruit" on female plants is actually not a true fruit but a naked seed (gymnosperm = gymno, naked, and sperm, seed) with a fleshy covering, it is plum-shaped (ca. 2.5 cm diam.), green then tan or orange, extremely messy and malodorous when ripe.
• (In their 1954 botany text, Fuller & Tippo indicate that one botanist described the fruit smell in more vernacular terms, i.e., like "raw dog vomit".) Sometimes fruit is set without pollination. It may be twenty or more years before a seedling flowers and sets fruit. Seedless (male) cultivars are commercially available, see below.
• Sun. Transplants easily. Prefers sandy, deep, moderately moist soil but grows in almost any situation. A durable tree for difficult landscape situations, in addition some cultivars can be espaliered or used in bonsai.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 3 Native to eastern China, long cultivated.
• Ginkgo: from the Chinese yin-kuo, silver apricot. biloba: two lobed, leaves sometimes incised or divided.
Weeping European Larch
• Deciduous conifer, shrub-like, weeping branches, forming an irregular horizontal crown, stem often divided with many leaders, needs staking for height. If not staked it will cover the ground.
• Cultivar of [European Larch] see description below:
• Deciduous conifer, 30-60(100) ft, pyramidal, drooping branches,
• note brown or black "bumps" (spurs, short shoots) on some branches (compare to Larix occidentalis, Western Larch).
• Clusters of 30-40 leaves (needles) arise from each spur, 1.3-4 cm long.
• May turn a rich yellow color in fall. Cones narrowly ovate, 2.5-4 cm long, 40-50 seed scales, upright, light brown.
• Sun. Readily transplanted when dormant. Best with sufficient moisture, well-drained and sunny conditions. Does not grow well in very dry or wet soils.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 2 Native to northern and central Europe. A few selections or cultivars are available, including a pendulus form Larix decidua 'Pendula'. Jacobson (1996) however states that the "mass-produced clone so sold in recent years is
• L. kaemferi 'Pendula'. decidua: deciduous.
• Deciduous conifer, 70-100 ft (21-30 m), excurrent, pyramidal, flat topped when mature.
• Needles 15 mm long, opposite, straight or slightly curved, bright green above, light green below.
• Female cone solitary, ca. 2.5 cm diam.
• Bark reddish brown when young, darker, fissuring, and exfoliating in strips when mature.
• Sun. Easy to transplant, performs best in moist, well-drained, slightly acid soils.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native to Sichuan (Szechuan, Szechwan), China. Only introduced in 1948.
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 35-50 ft high, broad-rounded.
• Leaves opposite, palmately compound, generally 5-leaflets, often recurved and twisted, leaflets obovate, 8-15 cm long, base wedge-shaped (cuneate), tip acute, margin double serrate, lustrous dark green above, nearly glabrous below.
• Flowers soft pink to bright red in 20 cm upright clusters (spectacular in May).
• Tan to brown globose fruit, about 4 cm long, only slightly prickly. Buds not as large or as sticky as those of A. hippocastanum.
• Sun to light shade. Best on moist, slightly acid soil.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (4)5
• From a cross of A. pavia and A. hippocastanum.
• Cultivars include 'Briotii', rosy crimson flowers; 'O'Neill Red', bright red single flowers.
• Broadleaf evergreen vine, fast growing to 20 ft .
• Leaves opposite, pinnate compound, 3 leaflets, leathery, glossy dark green, 7.5-15 cm long, oblong-lanceolate to ovate, pointed, droop downward, margin entire.
• Flowers white, 5-6.5 cm long, 4-7 sepals (the showy parts), fragrant, in large branched clusters in spring.
• Cultivars may have white or pinkish flowers (e.g, 'Hedersonii Rubra').
• Flowers are followed by clusters of plumed seeds, considered attractive by some.
• Sun to part shade. Clematis, in general, do best if roots are in cool soil (protected from sun) and tops in full sun. They prefer rich, loose, well-drained soil high in organic matter; a pH of 6-7.5 is recommended by some whereas others advocate an alkaline soil. Provide support. Needs pruning after flowering to avoid build up of tangled dead stems in the inner parts of the vine.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (6) 7 Native to central and western China.
Clematis Hybrids Ranunculaceae
Hybrid Clematis, Large-flowered Clematis KLEM-a-tis
• Deciduous vine, 5-25 ft vary by cultivar, twining, needs support.
• Leaves opposite, usually compound, but sometimes simple at stem tips; leaflets 2.5-10 cm long and 1-2 cm wide, ovate with entire margins.
• Flowers vary by cultivar, 5 to 20 cm wide, solitary or in clusters (cymes) of 2 -3, shades of white, pink, red, blue, lavender or violet.
• Bloom in spring.
• Fruit small and one-seeded.
• Part shade, most Clematis can handle sun if soil cool (not exposed), but semi-shade protects blossoms from fading. Prefers well-drained, organic, moist soil.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (3) 4 Many of the hybrids are the result of crosses between relatively few Clematis species. Over 200 hybrids are available, see Dirr (1998, p. 234) and the Sunset Western Garden Book for partial listings. Flowers of a few hybrid Clematis.
Copper Beech, Purple Beech
• Deciduous tree, 50-75 ft tall and 40-60 ft (12-18 m) spread, pyramidal to oval, dense.
• Bark smooth gray, developing an elephant hide appearance on old trunks.
• Buds narrow, long (2-2.5 cm), pointed.
• Leaves simple, alternate, 5-10 cm long, usually entire (silky and fringed with hairs [ciliate] when young), undulate, 5-9 vein pairs (F. grandifolia has 9-14 pair), acute apex, lustrous dark green above, light green beneath, glabrous at maturity, silky, ciliate when young; petiole 0.5-1 cm long, downy.
• Flowers open as leaves are expanding, male and female types on the same tree, male (staminate, pollen) in greenish-yellow, ball-like heads on long stalks, female (pistilate, seed) usually in reddish-brown, 2-flowered clusters on short stalks.
• May not flower until 30-80 years old.
• Fruit is about 2 cm long, with a light brown to reddish bristly husk, which opens into 4 parts and usually contains a pair of triangular, brown nuts, each about 1 cm long, edible, "beechnuts".
• Best in full sun but will withstand part shade. More tolerant of soils than F. grandifolia, otherwise similar requirements. Withstands pruning so well it can be used to form a very narrow yet tall hedge or windbreak (Hellyer, 1982).
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native to Europe
• sylvatica: of the woods
Golden Weeping Willow
• About 200 species of prostrate shrubs to large trees,
• most are deciduous and dioecious (staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers borne on different plants).
• Leaves are often lanceolate and alternate, rarely nearly opposite, margin toothed, short petioles, and stipules often present.
• Flowers usually appearing with or before the leaves, small, in dense catkins. Found over all the world, except Australia, especially in temperate climates.
• Salix: classic Latin name for willow, also from the Celtic sel, near, and lis, water.
• Deciduous tree, 60-70 ft), pyramidal when young, then upright-oval to pyramidal-rounded.
• Bark gray-brown.
• Leaves alternate, simple, somewhat circular in outline, 4-10 cm long, cordate, finely serrated, somewhat glossy above, paler and glabrous beneath except for axillary tufts of brown hairs,
• fall color is yellow green.
• Flowers produced in late June or early July, 5-7 per pendulous cluster, floral bract is 4-9 cm long.
• Globose fruit, slightly or not ridged, covered with gray pubescence, finally glabrous.
• Sun. Tolerates pollution. Used as a street tree for centuries. Can be pruned into a hedge.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (3) 4 Native to Europe.
• A number of cultivars.
Hybrid Rose Cultivars
• Some 100-150 species of deciduous, sometime evergreen, shrubs; upright, arching, or climbing, stems usually with prickles ("thorns") or bristles.
• Leaves alternate, compound (odd pinnate), occasionally simple, with persistent stipules, leaflets toothed.
• Flowers solitary or in clusters at the end of lateral shoots, usually 5 sepals and 5 petals, numerous stamens and pistils. The pistils are usually enclosed by a urn-shaped receptacle which
• develops into a orange or red berry-like fruit (hip) when ripe; it contains many achenes.
• Native to temperate and subtropical regions in the Northern Hemisphere; in Europe, North America to northern Mexico, Africa to Ethiopia, in Asia to the Himalayas and the Philippines.
• Rosa: Latin name for these plants.
• Rosa eglanteria [Sweetbriar Rose
• Rosa gymnocarpa [Little Wood Rose
• Rosa multiflora [Multiflora Rose
• Rosa nutkana [Nootka Rose
• Rosa rugosa [Rugosa Rose, Beach Tomato
• Rosa woodsii [Woods' Rose]
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 40-60(100) ft high, pyramidal when young.
• Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite and occasionally alternate, purplish tan when unfolding, then finally bluish-green, are rounded, heart-shaped (resembling Cercis canadensis), 5-10 cm long, neatly spaced in pairs along arching branches.
• "soft apricot-orange color" in fall
• Dioecious, i.e., male and female flowers on different plants. Male flowers appear in spring before the leaves, female flowers appear later, usually as the leaves expand, neither is considered showy.
• Fruit a small narrow pod, 2.5 cm long.
• Sun, but probably best in light shade. Grows best in moist well-drained soil, pH adaptable, but supposedly has better fall color in acid soils, needs supplemental watering. Bark splitting and sun scald may occur.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native to China and Japan
Tulip Tree; Tulip Magnolia
• Deciduous tree, 70-90(150) ft, strong central leader, narrow ovoid.
• Winter buds are valve-like, resembling a duck's bill, to about 13 mm.
• Leaves alternate, simple, 7.5-20 cm across, broad truncate apex,
• Bright green above; foliage only yellow, brown in fall.
• Tulip-like flowers in spring, greenish-yellow petals, orangish interior.
• Fruit cone-like, 6-8 cm long, green then brown, ripening in fall, containing numerous 1-2 seeded winged carpels, 2.5-3.5 cm long.
• Sun. pH adaptable but prefers a slightly acid soil. Aphids are a serious problem, in some areas the copious, sugary honeydew produced by the aphids results in a sooty mold on the upper suface of leaves.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native range from Massachusetts west to Wisconsin and south to Florida and Mississippi.
• Liriodendron: from Greek, leiron, lily, and dendron, tree. tulipifera: tulip-bearing.
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 25-30 ft over 60 ft to even 100 ft in the wild, pyramidal.
• Leaves, simple, alternate, 7.5-20 cm × 4-9 cm, elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, serrulate or entire, dark green, but sometimes a little yellow.
• Flowers white, urn-shaped, about 6 mm long, fragrant, in 10-25 cm long drooping clusters.
• Fruit small, about 8 mm, yellowish at first and then brown, many in droopy clusters (reminiscent of the Lily of the Valley), which persist after leaf drop.
• Foliage may show good fall color, yellow, red, and purple.
• Sun to part shade, acid peaty soil, needs summer moisture, not very competitive, therefore not great as a lawn tree.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (4) 5 Native from Virginia to North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio to Kentucky and Tennessee, grows along stream banks.
• Oxydendrum: from Greek oxys, acid, and dendron, a tree, referring to its acid tasting leaves. arboreum: tree-like.
• Broadleaf deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft tall, similar width, low rounded, bushy.
• Leaves alternate, compound pinnate, 3-7 leaflets (often 5, hence Cinquefoil, from quinque (L), five, and folium (L), leaf), each leaflet 13-20 mm x 6-12 mm, oblong-lanceolate.
• Flowers usually bright yellow (but white, pink, and red cultivars available), each 2.5-5 cm wide, single, 5-petaled (some cultivars double), solitary or in small groups.
• Blooms for a long period, not overwhelming.
• Fruit a small brown achene, not ornamental.
• Sun or light shade, tolerant of most well-drained soils, tough plant. Often left unpruned. Phillips and Barber (1981) state that potentilla "ignore conventional pruning" and the only way to rejuvenate them is to "amputate old stems to the ground".
• Hardy to USDA Zone 2 Native to the Northern Hemisphere.
• Cultivars: See Dirr (Manual of Woody Landscape Plants,1998, p. 768) for a brief description of 81 cultivars.
• fruticosa: shrubby
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 70-80 ft, pyramidal, horizontal branches, branches generally not large. Lower branches generally do not sweep downward as pin oak (i.e., less pruning).
• Leaves alternate, simple, 7.5-15 cm long, glossy green above and paler below, leaf truncate or rarely broadly wedge-shaped (cuneate) at base, 7-9 bristle tipped lobes, major sinuses rounded in the bottom ("C" shaped),
• scarlet or red in fall. Blade tends to be flat at site of attachment with petiole, not "V"-shaped.
• Buds large, oval, shaped like a rugby ball, tip blunt and pubescent. Small to medium acorn (2.0-2.5 cm. long) enclosed by a third or half of its length by a deep, bowl-like cap.
• Difficult to transplant, tap root. Generally found on dry, sandy soils. Does not develop chlorosis problems to the degree of Pin Oak. Less tolerant of adverse conditions than Pin or Red Oak (Dirr, p. 698). Can garden under, good lawn and street tree.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native from Maine to Florida, west to Minnesota and Missouri
• coccinea: Latin, scarlet, referring to the fall color.
Garry Oak, Oregon White Oak
• Deciduous tree, 40-90 ft broad spreading, rounded crown, rugged, heavy ascending, crooked branches, often shrubby when young (less than 25 years).
• Leaves alternate, simple, 5-15 cm long, dark green, round lobed,
• Autumn color is saddle brown, occasionally tinted gold or dull red.
• Fruit (acorn) with a short stalk or sessile, ovate, smooth, 2.5.-3 cm long, apex rounded, murcronate (small, sharp point), about 1/3 enclosed by the shallow cup; ripens the first year.
• Sun, likes dry soil in summer, deep tap root, summer watering can cause root rot, therefore not suitable in an irrigated lawn. Good shelter for rhododendrons. Leaves are susceptible to insect induced galls. Like many other oaks, they also occasionally form large galls, as wide as 5 cm or more. These so-called 'oak apples' are in response to the placement of the eggs of a specific wasp on the midrib of leaves.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 6 Native to western British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and northwestern California.
• garryana: named by David Douglas to honor Nicholas Garry, director, and later deputy governor, of the Hudson's Bay Company; Fort Garry, now Winnipeg, Canada.
• Broadleaf, deciduous tree, 60-75 ft prominent central stem, pyramidal, descending lower branches.
• Leaves alternate, simple, 7.5-15 cm long, 5-7 lobes, wide deep sinuses ("U" shaped in comparison with "C"-shaped sinuses of Q. coccinea), tips slightly lobed and bristle-like, glossy dark green; in
• Fall foliage ranges from russet, bronze to brilliant red. Blade tends to be "V"-shaped at attachment with petiole. Many leaves hang on all winter.
• Fruit (acorn) is small, about 12 mm long, the nut is enclosed only at the base by a thin, saucer-like cup; two seasons to mature.
• Sun. It has a shallow root system so more easily transplanted than many other oaks. Shows iron chlorosis (yellow foliage) on alkaline soils, therefore it should only be planted on soils that are at least slightly acid. It will tolerate wet soils (one of the swamp oaks), but is best in rich, acid, well-drained soil. One of the fastest growing oak (as much as 15 ft (4.5 m) in 5-7 years).
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native range from Massachusetts to Delaware, west to Wisconsin and Arkansas.
• palustris: of swamps
Upright English Oak
• Similar to species (see below), but very upright, columnar (like Lombary poplar), opens with age.
• May hold brown leaves well into winter.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4
• Quercus robur Fagaceae
• ******English Oak KWER-kus RO-ber
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 40-60(100) tall, often with a similar width, massive, rounded, short trunk.
• Leaves alternate, simple, obovate to obovate-oblong, 5-15 cm long, 3-6 pairs of deep rounded lobes, little "ear lobes" at the base of the blade (auriculate), dark green above, bluish green below, short petiole (4-8 mm long);
• fall color yellow and brown.
• Fruit (acorn) 2.5 cm, on a long stalk (5-10 cm), cap covers 1/3-1/4 of the nut.
• Sun, prefers well drained soil, pH tolerant.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native to Europe, north Africa, western Asia
• robur: ancient Latin name for strong, hard wood, especially oak.
• Broadleaf deciduous tree, 60-75 ft rounded, ascending, usually massive branches, tends to branch close to the ground.
• Leaves alternate, simple, base wedge shaped or sometimes rounded, 7-11 lobes, with several bristle-tipped teeth on the upper lobes, upper surface dull, yellowish-green, lower suface paler with tufts of hairs in the vein axils;
• new leaves reddish in spring, fall color from yellow-brown (often) to russet-red and bright red (rare).
• Male (pollen) flowers are in catkins that develop from leaf axils of the previous year and appear in the spring with or before the leaves. Female (seed) flowers develop in spikes in the axils of the current year's leaves. Acorn 2-2.5 cm long, enclosed at the base in a flat, thick, scaley, saucer-like cup. One author remarked that red oak "has no cup, it has a saucer"; the acorn matures in 2 years.
• Sun. Transplants readily because of negligible taproot. Best in sandy loam soils which are well drained and on the acid side. Withstands polluted air. Fairly fast growing, 60 cm per year (Dirr, p. 703).
• Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native from Nova Scotia to Pennsylvania, west to Minnesota and Iowa. The State Tree of New Jersey.
• rubra: Latin, red.
• Deciduous tree, 20-40 ft pyramidal to oval.
• Bark, flaky but smooth underneath, red-gray.
• Leaves alternate, simple, elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 5-9 cm long, remotely crenate, serrulate, dark green;
• fall color variable, from yellow to red to reddish-purple.
• Flowers appear in early to mid-summer, white, camellia-like, 6 cm wide with orange anthers.
• Fruit, 2.5 cm long, nearly spherical (ovoid).
• Best in light shade, at least in hottest part of summer. Prefers moist, cool, humus-rich, slightly acid soil, with good drainage.
• Hardy to USDA Zone (4)5 Native to Japan.
• pseudocamellia: pseudo, false, camellia, referring to the flower which is reminiscent of a camellia flower (Camellia is also in the family Theaceae).
Orange-Eye Butterfly Bush
• Deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub, large, 8-12 ft high, or taller, unkempt, usually killed to the ground in colder areas.
• Leaves opposite, simple, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 10-25 cm, 2.5-7.5 cm wide, acuminate, cuneate, serrated margin, gray-green to dark green above, tomentose beneath.
• Flowers small, fragrant, usually borne in spike-like slender, dense, 10-25 cm long terminal clusters, often lilac colored with orange at the opening.
• Blooms in summer.
• Full sun, easily grown, almost weed-like. Prune in early spring to control growth and encourage large flowers which are borne on new growth. Remove spent clusters to sustain flowering. Butterflies often visit flowers.
• Hardy to USDA Zone 5 Native to China. Many cultivars available.
• Caution: It has naturalized in Great Britain, New Zealand, and many parts of the U.S. It is often considered a weed (see below). In 2010 the Oregon Department of Agriculture prohibited the sale of non-approved selections of Buddleja davidii within the state of Oregon. Approved sterile cultivars of Buddleja are not regulated under this ruling.
• Buddleia: after the Rev. Adam Buddle (1660-1715). davidii: after Armand David who discovered the species.